Part 1 (A)
What is Curriculum?
For Curriculum it does not matter the religion or the nationality, children are educated into particular modes which can make sense of their experiences and the environment around them, and also into a set of behavioral expectations, skills and knowledge, which the society requires for its future.
A curriculum In practice, though is more than this. it is useful to think of it as being much wider. As a working definition of a curriculum I would say that it is the sum of all the activities, experiences and learning opportunities for which an institution or a teacher takes responsibility – either deliberately or by default.
This includes in such a broad concept of curriculum the formal and the informal, the overt and the covert, the recognized and the overlooked, the intentional and the unintentional. A curriculum is determined as much by what is not offered, and what has been rejected, as it is by positive actions. And very importantly the curriculum that actually happens – that is what is realized in practice – includes informal contact between teachers and learners as well as between the learners themselves, and this has been termed ‘the hidden curriculum’ which often has as much influence on what is learnt as the formal curriculum that is written down as a set of instructions. There are three faces to a curriculum: the curriculum on paper; the curriculum in action; and the curriculum that participants actually learn.
Part 1 (B) & Part 2 (A)
Education Ministry of Malaysia has made education the main agenda in the country’s development. A uniform system of education in both primary and secondary schools has been established whereby a national curriculum is used in all schools.
The Ministry of Education through its central agency, namely the Curriculum Development Centre (CDC), is responsible for initiating curriculum development in Malaysia. The CDC is responsible for the development of the pre-school, primary school and secondary school curriculum Under The Education Ministry.
The National curriculum is design to promote unity through the use of a single medium of instruction (the national language - Bhasa Malaysia) and the provision of the same core subjects for all pupils in all schools within the National Education System. ( Malaysia Curriculum planning, development and reform. Zamrus Bin A. Rahman and Mokelas Bin Ahmad. (Source: UNESCO statistical yearbook,1998., retrieved from http://www.ibe.unesco.org/curriculum/Asia%20Networkpdf/ndrepmy.pdf)
Goals and objectives of the Malaysian Curriculum
The role of the school curriculum is to ensure the holistic development of the individual mentally, physically, spiritually and emotionally by imparting general knowledge and skills; cultivating, instilling and fostering healthy attitudes and accepted moral values. The curriculum aims to bring forth the Malaysian citizen who is a balanced and well-rounded individual, trained, skillful, and cherishes the national aspiration for unity.
( ANALYSIS OF THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM FOR BASIC EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA, Sharifah Maimuna. P.6 (Sourc: Analysis of the National Curriculum for Basic Education In Malaysia. Retrieved from http://www.ibe.unesco.org/curriculum/Asia%20Networkpdf/MALAYSIA.pdf )
(Unesco Malaysia Curriculum, P.10, Retrieve from,
http://www.ibe.unesco.org/curriculum/Asia%20Networkpdf/MALAYSIA.pdf ) The national education policy is divided in to 3 criteria’s which is
1. National Standard Pre School Curriculum.
2.National standard Primary school Curriculum.
3.National standard Secondary school Curriculum.
Children between four and six years of age begin their education at preschool set up throughout the country by both government and non-government agencies and the private sector. They enter the primary school at the age of 6+. After completing 6 years at the primary school level they will proceed to...