Couses of Semantic Changes

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World literature
In translation
* The concept of the world literature.
* Henrik ibsen : an enemy of the people (public enemy) – ghosts. * Anton Chekhov: ivanov.
* Wole soynka: death and the king Horseman.
* Brain fried : translation
* Gabriel Garcia Marques and the magical realism : a vary old man with enormous wings, the handsomest drowned man in the world. * Postcolonial theory Edward said's : introduction to orientalism. * All critical literature produced and related to these words and issues: * Comparative literature

* Generative literature
* National literature
* Global literature

* Literary translation :
Is that rendering of a literary work, originally produced in one language , into another. At one extreme of translation stands literal rendering of the work into the other language, without concern for the primary differences in idiom and imagery between the two languages. At the other extreme is the adaptation of the work into the other language , and attempt to comprehend and communicate the spirit and meaning of the work by adapting it to the conventions and idioms of the language into which it is being rendered. Each translator must strike some kind of balance between these two extremes – which is being called " faithful ugliness" or " faithless beauty".

* World literature :
A term coined but not defined by Goethe which means approximately that literature which is of all nations and peoples, and which by a mutual extreme of ideas, mediates between nations and helps to enrich the spirit of man. Tomas Carlyle spoke of world literature – national literature: is the writing produced in both prose and poetry by writers of the same language and culture.

* Comparative literature :
Is the study of literature beyond the confines of one particular country, and the study of the relationship between literature one the one hand and other areas of knowledge and believes such as the art philosophy, social sciences, psychology, religion on the other hand. Briefly, it is the comparison of one literature with another or others, and the comparison of literature with other spheres of human expressions. Several terms are related or seems to overlap with world literature : comparative literature, national literature and general literature. A clarification of their meanings is necessary for the delimitation of these terms.

* National literature :
* There is no fundamental difference between methods of research in national literature and comparative literature, between for example " a comparison of Lard Biren with Coleridge and of BIREN with GOETHE. If we compare one writer to another in the same country that’s mean not a comparative literature. * There are subjects encountered in comparative literature research which go beyond national literature scholarship. The contactor or the collision between different cultures, in general and the problems connected with the translation in particular. * Other topics inherent in the study of national literature occur in different patterns and tend to occupy a place of greater importance in comparative literature research: VOGUE SUCCESS of the author reception and influence, travels and intermediates. * We should not hesitate at all to describe a comparison between SEAN O'CCASY and ARTHER MILLER as a comparative literature and other writings in the same language but belonging to the different nations. * To what extent should legal naturalization be taken into account? What is the difference between the British citizenship of T.S.ELIOT and the American citizenship of TOMAS MANN. * We may state that a topic of this nature is a comparative if it deals with significant differences in language, nationality or tradition.

* World literature and comparative literature:
* Comparative literature comprises elements of space, time, quality and intensity. * Comparative literature...
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