Country Paper Tanzania

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1. Background Information
1.1 Geography
The United Republic of Tanzania is located in the East of Africa bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique. It has borders with Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda and Zambia. Tanzania contains of 945,087square kilometers, including the islands of Zanzibar, Mafia and Pemba. Thus it is about three times as big as Germany. Tanzania has a very special and unique landscape due to the Kilimanjaro, which is the highest mountain of whole Africa and Lake Victoria, which is the third largest freshwater lake in the world.

Today the official capital of
Tanzania is Dodoma, in the
very centre of the republic,
because legislative offices are
lresident here. Dar es Salaam,
as the largest city of the
country, which also holds the
seat of government, can be
considered as the commercial
capital.
Figure 1: Map of Tanzania
The climate varies from humid and hot in the lower situated regions to the point of dry heat in the daytime and refreshing coolness at night in the high-lying areas. Because Tanzania is located South of the equator there is no real significant change of seasons. The climate is merely subdivided into one dry period and two rainfall periods.

1.2 Population, Religion, Language
There is a huge ethnic variety among the 46 million inhabitants that presently live in Tanzania. Ninety-nine percent of the mainland population consists of different African-originated groups, up to 130 folks can be counted./ The major ethnic group, the Sukuma, represents almost 13 percent of the total population, the second and third largest groups are the Nyamwezi and the Chagga. Compared to other African countries there are no significant political conflicts between all these ethnic groups, the crucial reason for this probably is that there is none which predominates. The island Zanzibar basically accommodates Arabs, mixed Arabs and Africans. The spread of religions is as follows; on the mainland 30 percent Christian, 35 percent Muslim and 35 percent indigenous beliefs, on Zanzibar there are more than 99 percent Muslim. Common languages are English (official, primary language of commerce, administration and higher education), Swahili (official) and Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar). Half of the population are children and adolescents up to 18 years. The number of inhabitants increases around 2 percent each year which is also due to the high average fertility birth rate of 4.16 children per woman. For this reason Tanzania belongs to the Top 50 countries of the world concerning natality. 1.3 Recent History

The history of Tanzania has been influenced by many different cultures. Already in the 8th century A.D. there has been intense trading by Arabic and Persian sailors at the coastline. The mediaeval was the bloom of the Swahili culture in East Africa. From 1828 sultans of the Oman reside in Zanzibar, they built bases for ivory and slaves in the inland. The 19th century was coined by slave trade and the activities of the first missionary. In 1980 the German government absorbs the sovereign rights in German East Africa. Afterwards the islands Zanzibar and Pemba became British protectorate. The German colonial administration department encounters military resistance in the South of the country in 1905 around 100,000 people had to pay this antagonism with their lives. After the First World War, German East Africa declined to Great Britain as a trusteeship territory. In 1954 under the direction of Julius Nyerere the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) was established. From this Union later on emerges the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) which holds governance until today. In 1961 Tanganyika achieves independence and also Zanzibar became autonomous two years later. The 26th April 1964 is the foundation day of the United Republic of Tanzania....
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