Contribution of Hawthorne Study or Experiment in 21st Century

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A Study
Contribution of Hawthorne Study or Experiment in 21st Century

Submitted By:
M. M. A. AL- NUMAN Id no: 2012-1-10-150 SEC: 8 Course code: MGT 101 Course title: Principle of Management Semester: Fall 2012 Program: Bachelor of Business Administration EAST WEST UNIVERSITY

BBA Department
EAST WEST UNIVERSITY
DATE: 19th November 2012

Table of Contents
Page No.
Introduction
03
The Hawthorne Studies
02
Effect on productivity
03
Relay assembly
04
Feedback and result
04
Four Parts of Hawthorne Studies 05
Criticism of Hawthorne Studies 06
Example
06
Conclusions
07

Introduction

There are so many experiments are established for management research. The Hawthorne Studies or experiment is one of the big experience in management study. The main theory of this study is to find out result of productivity by controlling working condition.

The Hawthorne Studies
The Hawthorne Studies or experiments were established from 1927 to 1932 at the Western Electric Hawthorne Works in Chicago, where Harvard Business School professor Elton Mayo examined productivity and work conditions. The studies grew out of preliminary experiments at the plant from 1924 to 1927 on the effect of light on productivity. Those experiments showed no clear connection between productivity and the amount of illumination but researchers began to wonder what kind of changes would influence output. Purpose of study was to examine what effect monotony and fatigue had on productivity and how to control them with variables such as rest breaks, work hours, temperature, and humidity.

Effect on productivity
Specifically, Mayo wanted to find out what effect fatigue and monotony had on job productivity and how to control them through such variables as rest breaks, work hours, temperature and humidity. In the process, he stumbled upon a principle of human motivation that would help to revolutionize the theory and practice of management. Mayo took six women from the assembly line, segregated them from the rest of the factory and put them under the eye of a supervisor who was more a friendly observer than disciplinarian. Mayo made frequent changes in their working conditions, always discussing and explaining the changes in advance. He changed the hours in the working week, the hours in the workday the number of rest breaks. the time of the lunch hour. Occasionally, he would return the women to their original, harder working conditions.

Relay assembly
The investigators selected two girls for their second series of experiments and asked them to choose another four girls, thus making a small group of six. The group was employed in assembling telephone relays - a relay being a small but intricate mechanism composed of about forty separate parts which had to be assembled by the girls seated at a lone bench and dropped into a chute when completed. The relays were mechanically counted as they slipped down the chute. It was intended that the basic rate of production should be noted at the start, and that subsequently changes would be introduced, the effectiveness of which would be measured by increased or decreased production of the relays. Feedback

Throughout the series of experiments, an observer sat with the girls in the workshop noting all that went on, keeping the girls informed about the experiment, asking for advice or information, and listening to their complaints. The experiment began by introducing various changes, each of which was continued for a test period of four to twelve...
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