Conceptual Framework of 4`S Library

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Peter Drucker defined the marketing concepts as “the business as seen from the customer‟s point of view.” Keating & Hafner [68] initiated that business models can be applied to libraries; they draw analogies from business by substituting “library” for “corporation and “user” for “customer”. The e-Business domain is being employed extensively in government, library, and non-profit diverse organizations lately. Constantinides (2002) [69] proposed the Web-Marketing Mix (WMM) model to identify the online marketing critical elements and addresses the E-Commerce strategic, operational, organizational and technical issues by: Scope, Site, Synergy and System (4S). The scope identifies the strategic and operational objectives to be addressed. The site proposes a method for drafting realistic and consistent Web marketing plans in order to develop the functional platform of communication, interaction, and transaction with the web customers. The synergy refers to the necessary organization, infrastructure, human resource and knowledge for supporting smooth online operational processes. The system identifies main technological and administrative issues that will underpin online marketing activities. To illustrate how to implement the 4S into conceptual framework, each of them will be explained further. The “Scope” is acted as a strategic direction for managers to ensure the whole staff follows the organizational predefined goals and objectives. In order to measure an organization's internal processes, then to identify, understand, and adapt external practices for continuous improvement from other organizations, there is a desire to establish benchmarking across institutions [70]. For administering reader profiles and sustaining activities, a segmentation of readers is helpful to reach the goal setting and position the strategic role of library during the service process. The “Site” transforms a web required to evaluate how well the website‟s presentation has complied with the...
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