Conceptual Framework

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Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.41-49, Feb 2011 Conceptual framework on the relationship between human resource management practices, job satisfaction, and turnover *Hamdia Mudor1 Phadett Tooksoon2 of Communication Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus, Thailand 2Faculty of Business Administration and Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna Tak, Thailand *anandia@hotmail.com 1Faculty

Abstract: This paper attempts to propose a conceptual framework consisting of three human resources management (HRM) practice (supervision, job training, and pay practices), job satisfaction, and turnover, and to explain the relationships among these variables. Job satisfaction played an important role to employees’ turnover because it would lead employee resigned when their job satisfaction is low. The results indicate HRM practice a positively and significantly correlated with job satisfaction. On the other hand HRM practice and job satisfaction are negatively and significantly correlated with turnover. However, the results of HRM practice and job satisfaction are strong predictors of turnover. Keyword: Human Resource Management Practice, Job Satisfaction, Turnover 1. Introduction In previously studies, there are plentiful of job satisfaction research that often in two different types of variable which effect on job satisfaction (Steijn, 2002). First, individual characteristics define as race, gender, educational level and age such as the study of Reiner and Zhao (1999) explain a significant effect on age whereas Ting (1997) clarifies age and race associated effect to job satisfaction. On the other hand, in the second place in most studies are work environment as supported by Herzberg (1966) as the primary determinant of employee job satisfaction. For example, Reiner and Zhao (1999) employ five dimensions of the work environment; skill variety, task identity, task significant, autonomy, and feedback. However, their study is lack of explicitly variables related to the personal practices in this period (Steijn, 2002). In the recent year, the literature on Human Resource Management (HRM) emphasis on the high performance working system practices’ on job satisfaction as hence employee performance and contributed the organization performance. Job satisfaction is one of the most widely studies work-related attitudes in the fields of industrial and organizational psychology, and organizational behavior (Spector, 1997). Many researchers identify in several ways in definition of job satisfaction. Greenberg and Baron (1997) define job satisfaction as an individual’s cognitive, affective, and evaluative reactions towards his or her job. Locke (1976) provides more specific definition on job satisfaction as the state where one’s needs and one’s outcomes match well. According to Cranny, Smith and Stone (1992) job satisfaction is a combination of cognitive and affective reactions to the differential perceptions of what an employee wants to receive compared to what he or she actually receives. Job satisfaction is a factor that would induce the employee to work in the long term position. Regardless of job satisfaction the organization or firm would confront with the cost of recruitment caused by turnover. For this reason, the organization should pay attention to employees’ job satisfaction as well. 2. Literature Review Job Satisfaction and Turnover Job satisfaction is in regard to one's feelings or state-of-mind regarding the nature of their work. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors, for example pay practice, quality of one's relationship with their supervisor, quality of the physical environment in which they work whereby turnover refers to the characteristic of a given company or industry, relative to rate at which an employer gains and loses staff. For example, if an employer is said to have a high turnover, it means that employees of that company have a shorter tenure...
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