The Cooperative movement in India has its own status, role and impact in the socio-economic development of the country, specially for providing organizational and financial support to give impetus to income generating activities for weaker sections, such as small and marginal farmers, artisans, weavers, landless agriculture labours, fisherman and urban poor etc. (NCUI Statistics 2001). Today there are 5.28 lacs (NCUI Statistics 2001)
different type of cooperative societies with a
membership of 22.87 crore, and having total working capital of about Rs. 2,85,643.35 crore and share capital of Rs. 16649 crores. Over the years, cooperatives have made concerted effort to improve the neglected and downtrodden sections of the society. The cooperative movement in India has passed through three main stages, from 1904 to 1950 called as establishment stage. During the period efforts has been made to strengthen the cooperative institutions in the economy. During 1950 to 1990 was the period of developmental & diversification stage where the movement has focuses its business in their area. Many structural, managerial &operational changes including technology, area of operation, approach, organization and methodology have been made by the cooperatives after 1990 due to paradigm shift of economic policy of India, the character of cooperative are also forced to shift from member driven to customer oriented in a competitive platform. The Government of India, through setting up of various committees, has reviewed the role of cooperatives in socio-economic development periodically. But these committees have not
undertaken the task at micro level to review of the same in regards to various types of cooperatives
periodically. There are only few reports prepared through evaluation studies on the subject. Since the research works on the cooperative sector in India were almost scanty, attempts have been made to probe through a structured research investigation with the help of proper methodology for analysing the relevant data on performance appraisal of Indian and USA based Cooperatives with the help of selected parameters and sample societies for a period of five years (1995-96 to 20002001). This study not only highlights the achievements of cooperatives in the countries but also focuses on the shortcomings and problems of them, which have hampered the growth & development of the cooperatives. The research findings derived from the study and suggestions given by the researcher will be useful to the cooperative organizations, research institutions, policy makers and the beneficiaries of cooperatives. The Indian society and economy particularly rural sector is largely influenced by Cooperative sector. More than 5.28 lacs cooperatives are working in Urban & Rural area, are engaged in providing economic & social services to the poor masses through carrying out various types of activities. In socio-republic country like India, the Government plays an important role to preserve interest of under privileged people. The environment and the urgency for the reform create every institution and movement. The Indian peasants were heavily indebted towards the end of 19th century and the problem of rural indebtedness was so serious that it called for an immediate remedy. The Madras Government, under these circumstances deputed Mr. Frederick Nicholson, a member of International Cooperative society to study the working of cooperative village banks in Germany where this new system of banking had achieved tremendous success. The main theme of this report was reflected in subsequent recommendation by Famine Commission in form of Cooperative Credit Societies Act of 1904. This Act was to encourage thrift, self-help and cooperation among agriculturist, artists and persons of limited means. T. 1998). (Tiwari
Cooperative organisations are not mere economic combinations but have some...