Communicative Competence

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 Communicative Competence
 What is Communicative Competence?
Hymes
The ability to interpret messages and negotiate meaning within specific contexts. Savignon
An interpersonal construct examined by means of overt performance of two or more people in the process of communication.  James Cummins (1980)
CALP
Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency
Context Reduced
* Surface features of language
* Focus on form
* Used for classroom exercises
* Communicative capacity of language
* Focus on meaning
* Used for daily interpersonal exchanges
BICS
Context Embedded
Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills
 Canale & Swain
Grammatical Competence
* Lexical items
* Morphology
* Syntax
* Semantics
* Phonology
Sociolinguistic Competence
Strategic Competence
* Sociocultural rules
* Understanding social context
4
Verbal/nonverbal strategies to compensate for breakdowns due to performance variables or insufficient competence * Ability of connecting sentences
* Intersentential Relationships
Discourse Competence
 Bachman (1990)
REMEMBER
Locutionaryact: Performance of an utterance
“It’s cold in here.”
Illocutionary act: Intended meaning
[The windows is open. So I should close it.]
Perlocutionary act: Consequences of the utterance (whether intended or not) [Someone closes the window.]
* Dialect
* Register
* Naturalness
* Cultural References
* Vocabulary
* Morphology
* Syntax
* Phonology
* Graphology
Sociolinguistic Competence
Language Competence
Grammatical Competence
Organizational Competence
Pragmatic Competence
Textual (Discourse) Competence
Illocutionary Competence
* Manipulative Functions
* Heuristic Functions
* Imaginative Functions
* Cohesion
* Rehtorical Organization
 Strategic Competence
Language Competence
Knowledge Structures (of the world)
Strategic Competence
Psychophysiological Mechanisms
Context of Situation
 Language Functions
Purposes we accomplish with language:
stating
REQUESTING
responding
greeting
 Halliday’s 7 Functions
Certain events happen
Particular conditions change
Go out!
1- Instrumental
Control of events
Setting rules
If it’s not cold, stay outside.
2- Regulatory
Conveying facts and knowledge
Representing reality as it is
Yoghurt is white!
3- Representational
To establish & maintain contact
Knowledge of slang, jargon, jokes…
What’s up dude?!!
4- Interactional
To express feelings and emtions
Oh dear! I feel so blue today!
5- Personal
Seeking answers (usually in the form of questions)
6- Heuristic
Where do babies come from?!!!
To create ideas and imaginations
Going beyond the real world
“Love is metaphysical gravity.”
7- Imaginative
 Functional Approach
Notional-Functional syllabuses
Notion
Function
Notion is referred both to abstract
concepts such as existence, space,
time, quantity and quality
Functions correspond to what we already
talked about Language Functions i.e.
instrumental, representational, etc.
 Discourse Analysis
The examination of the relationship between forms and functions of language. It’s language beyond the sentence.
Without the pragmatic contexts of discourse our communications would be ambiguous.  Conversation Analysis
Attention Getting
It’s the first rule that children learn.
Topic Nomination
Speakers do it after securing hearer’s attention.
Topic Development
Speakers do it after securing hearer’s attention.
Turn Taking
Set of culturally oriented rules to communicate properly.
Clarification
Is usually manifested in forms of Heuristic functions.
Repair
From indirect signals to outright corrections (strategic competence) Shifting and Avoidance
They are effected through verbal and nonverbal signals.
Interruptions
They are a form of attention getting.
Topic Termination
It’s an art of finishing the conversation which is hard even for native speakers!
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