Chapter 1 Communication Theory
1.1 COMMUNICATION THEORY
Specific OutcomesThe student should be able to: * Identify the four needs underlying communication. * Describe the process of communication and show how it applies to various situations within the industry. * Recognise and explain in his/her own words the terminology of the process of communication. * Distinguish between the different types of communication. * Determine the internal and external factors that influence communication. * Distinguish between the two main types of barriers to effective communication. * Critically evaluate a case study.
| Content: * The 4 needs of communication. * The process of communication. * Relevant terminology relating to the process. * 4 different types of communication. * The five contexts that influence communication. * The barriers to communication.
| Resources: * UJ Communication 1 manual and the reference books in the learner guide * Louw, M., & Du Plooy-Cilliers, F. 2003. Let’s Talk About Interpersonal Communication. Cape Town: Heinemann
| Assessment:Assessment will take place in the form of a: * Case study * Multiple choice quiz * Cloze technique exercise * True and False self-test.
Communication is a phenomenon that is found amongst all living and replicating creatures from viruses up to more biologically complex species such as humans, and may include non-organic (non-living) entities such as Artificial Intelligence programs (A.I.). In a definitional sense, Communication is simply the transference/sending of information from one entity to another. In terms of humans, however, communication entails much more than this — communication involves languages, reading, writing, listening, speaking and a vast repertoire of non-verbal signals. As a matter of fact, humans spend all of their time communicating (even whilst sleeping). We, therefore, study communication to gain an understanding of ourselves, other people and our relationships with them. In this chapter, we hope to explore what Communication is, how it works, and how it changes.
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
There are several types of communication. Each type occurs in a different context. This section will provide you with an overview of the different types of communication.
1. INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
This occurs when you are communicating with yourself. It happens when you listen to that little voice inside your head. When communicating intrapersonally, you could be evaluating, persuading, rehearsing a scenario, daydreaming or thinking. But, all this happens in your own head! Sometimes we think in pictures, we don't always think in words. The way we view ourselves is influenced by the way we talk to ourselves and what we say.
2. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Interpersonal communication involves interaction with others on a personal level. We reveal what we are to other people and learn about them through this type of communication. Through interpersonal communication we establish, maintain, destroy or repair relationships.
3. SMALL GROUP COMMUNICATION
Small groups are a fixture of everyday life: Your family is a group and your circle of friends is a small group. These groups are used to solve problems, develop ideas, share knowledge and experience and generally support each other. They may be informal — meetings at tea-time — or more formal departmental meetings.
4. PUBLIC COMMUNICATION
This occurs when the group becomes too large for all the members to contribute equally. It is characterised by an unequal amount of speaking between the sender and the receiver: the sender is normally one person and the receivers are generally the audience. There is little feedback in this type of communication. A public meeting in a hall is a good example of public communication.
5. MASS COMMUNICATION
This is communication by means of the mass media, for example radio,...
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