Collective Bargaining

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NATURE.- The ILO is the first international body which is not expressly concerned with political questions but its role is limited to the problems of industry and with he conditions under which ordinary men throughout the world work and live. It is an illuminating enterprise of constructive international co-operation and understanding dedicated to the elimination of poverty and injustice. It is a new social experimental institution making the world continuously conscious that the unjust condition of working population may affect the world peace. The only justification of its establishment and the nature of its activities is that it provides a positive and dynamic leadership to the humanity for nobler actions, and is continuously exploring  the new horizons of universal peace, co-operation and unity. It is an organisation for peace and social justice. It is firmly committed to the motto that there can be no peace without social justice and no social justice without peace. So is the cardinal principle of its constitution--that, (1). 'Poverty anywhere constitutes a danger to prosperity everywhere', (2). 'universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice'. Therefore, the ILO's meaning, nature and activities centre around three words: (1). Peace, (2). Social Justice and (3). Labour. What the ILO is then? In the words of the ILO itself 'Most simply of nations...created to improve working and living conditions all over the world. But beyond this immediate purpose is the longer range objective of helping to establish an international community of nations in which all people may live in peace and steadily increasing prosperity'. The ILO deals with international labour and social problems as the UN Food and Agricultural Organisation handles questions relating to the earth's food supply and the World Health Organisation works to improve the health of the people living on the planet. While it is an inter-governmental agency, it differs from other diplomatic bodies in one important way, namely, the representation is given to workers and employers beside governmental representatives. The three groups--the ILO's tripartite structure--share in its control, evolution and supervision of the execution of its policies and programmes. These groups are the governments which finance it, the workers, for whose benefit it is created and employers who share the responsibility for the welfare of the workers. Keeping in view its overall objectives and structure the ILO appears like the Ministry of Labour of the UN having the responsibility in the fields of labour conditions, industrial relations, social security and all other aspects of social and economic policies havin a direct bearing on the workers. AIMS AND PURPOSES: A broad idea of the aims and purposes of the ILO can be understood from the text of the Peace Treaty of 1919. It provided that ILO is being established for 'the well-being, physical and intellectual of industrial wage-earners'. This was being done not as a matter of charity to labour but as a matter of 'supreme international importance'. However, it was recognised that 'differences of climate, habits and customs of economic opportunity and industrial tradition, make strict uniformity in the conditions of labour difficult of immediate attainment...that labour should not be regarded merely as an article of commerce...'. Thus, from international point of view the welfare of the wage-earners is the principal aim of the ILO. The objectives of the ILO are clearly enumerated in the Preamble of its Constitution supplemented by Article. 427 of the Peace Treaty of Versailles which has been further supplemented by the Philadelphia Declaration of 1944. These fundamental instruments set out the main ideology of the ILO in the following terms: "Whereas universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice; "And whereas...
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