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Clinometer (forestry)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A clinometer used in forestry
The clinometer, known in many fields as an inclinometer, is a common tool used in forestry to measure slope, vertical angles, and – in combination with distance measurements – elevation change or tree heights. Contents [hide] * 1 How it works * 2 Units of measure * 3 Tree height measurement * 4 Slope measurement * 5 Manufacturers * 6 See also * 7 References| -------------------------------------------------

[edit]How it works
A forester using a clinometer makes use of basic trigonometry. First the observer measures a straight-line distance D from some observation point O to the object. Then, using the clinometer, the observer measures the angle a between O and the top of the object. Then the observer does the same for the angle b between O and the bottom of the object. Multiplying D by the tangent of a gives the height of the object above the observer, and by the tangent of b the depth of the object below the observer. Adding the two of course gives the total height (H) of the object, in the same units as D.[1] Note that since multiplication is distributive it is equally valid to add the tangents of the angles and then multiply them by D: A = tan a

B = tan b
H = (A × D) + (B × D) = (A + B) × D
Note also that both angles should be positive numbers (i.e. ignore any minus sign on the clinometer's scale). -------------------------------------------------
[edit]Units of measure
There are typically three different units of measure that can be marked on a clinometer: degrees, percent, and topo. When buying a clinometer it is important to make sure it is calibrated to units suitable for the intended use. -------------------------------------------------

[edit]Tree height measurement
[[Image:Illustration of the basic trigonometric principles used by a clinometer.JPG|right|200px|thumb|Tree height...

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History
Main article: Wrestling history
Wrestling is one of the oldest forms of combat with references to it as early as the Iliad, in which Homer recounts the Trojan War in the 13th or 12th century BC.[3] The origins of wrestling can be traced back 15,000 years through cave drawings in France. Babylonian and Egyptian relief's show wrestlers using most of the holds known to the present-day sport. In ancient Greece, wrestling occupied a prominent place in legend and literature; wrestling competition, brutal in many aspects, was the number one sport of the Olympic Games. The ancient Romans borrowed heavily from Greek wrestling, but eliminated much of its brutality.
During the Middle Ages (fifth century to fifteenth century) wrestling remained popular and enjoyed the patronage of many royal families, including those of France, Japan and England.
Early Americans brought a strong wrestling tradition with them when they came from England. The settlers also found wrestling to be popular among Native Americans.[citation needed] Amateur wrestling flourished throughout the early years of the country and served as a popular activity at country fairs, holiday celebrations, and in military exercises. The 1st organized national wrestling tournament was held in New York City in 1888, while the 1st wrestling competition in the modern Olympic Games was held in 1904 in Saint Louis, Missouri.[citation needed] FILA was founded in 1912, in...

...In this case, it is seldom practical to measure the height the highest point of our school with a tape measure, but it can be accomplished easily by using an instrument called a clinometer to measure the angle of sight between the observer, in this case, Shanthanu, a somewhat normal human being, who holds a height of 1.72m, and the highest point of the school, and a measure tape to identify the distance of the observer from the center of the hall. Using this raw data my group and I were able to then create a diagram as showed above, so that we could apply trigonometry to calculate the height of the school. Calculating the height was the simplest part of this investigation, first the tangent theta ratio, followed by eliminating the adjacent value from the equation, leaving us with the opposite value then averaging all the trails to come to a final height.
Diagram:
Calculations:
To get our results we were required to grab all the trails and get an ideal average.
Here’s a diagram of what we had done:
(Trail 1 + Trail 2 + Trail 3 + Trail 4) ÷ 4 = 17.74
In other words;
(The sum of all trials (70.96)) ÷ (The number of Trials (4)) = (The Average (17.74))
State the conclusions that you reached about the height of the school.
As a result of our accurate and correct use of the clinometer and the meter wheel, along with our high knowledge of the application of trigonometry, we were able to get a final answer for the height of our...