Managing of Solid Waste
Edwin Jude Hariom Singh Kiran S Kumar Kushal Sutodiya Vineeth V
Due to rapid urbanization and uncontrolled growth rate of population, solid waste management has become acute in India. The current practices of the uncontrolled dumping of waste on the outskirts of towns/cities have created a serious environmental and public health problem. Plastic waste which is biggest problem in waste management is recycled in India in an “unorganized” way. 60% of the plastic-waste collected and segregated gets recycled back into materials for further processing into consumer products, while the balance is left unutilized. The focus of the conference is to evaluate the present situation of Solid Waste Management and Plastic Management in India based an approach to design a sustainable system to meet the future challenge is presented. Some of the best practices like Amla Bharatam Campaign are also detailed. The efforts by a community-based organization to promote a sustainable integrated waste management in mega cities and lessons learnt from EXNORA’s Zero Waste Management Scheme in South Indian cities has also been outlined.
Solid wastes are all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid and are discarded as useless or unwanted. Generation of solid waste is not a new phenomenon. It is as old as the human civilization. In the early days, before the advent of the industrial revolution, the major constituents of wastes were domestic sewage and agricultural residues, which were biodegradable in nature. Since population was less and fallow land was in plenty, solid wastes could be conveniently disposed off in the countryside either on open ground or were placed in pits covered with layers of earth. Because of their biodegradable nature they used to get decomposed and assimilated in the soil. However, with unparallel industrialization and consequent organization not only has the quantity of the solid waste increased but its quality has also changed. Though rural wastes continue to be made up of domestic wastes and agricultural residues Solid wastes are unwanted materials disposed by mankind. Domestic, Commercial, Institutional, Municipal, Bulky, Ashes and Garbage are the types of wastes.
The most commonly recognized methods for the final disposal of solid wastes are: Dumping on land Dumping in water Plowing into the soil Incineration
mainly, waste from urban areas and the industrial units contains diverse types of materials that include toxic and hazardous constituents. Solid Waste Management may be defined as
the discipline associated with the control of generation, collection, storage, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics and other environmental considerations. Various problems are faced due to solid wastes disposal. Dumping of solid wastes in the open could create aesthetic problems as the beauty of a place is destroyed. The garbage forms a source of food for rats, flies, mosquitoes and the like. Hence typhoid, plague, dysentery, diarrhoea epidemics could occur. Toxic hazardous substances in the wastes would be harmful to human and animal health. The plastics if eaten by cows could be fatal. Solid wastes could also pollute water and their burning could lead to air pollution.
Segregation of municipal solid waste
In order to encourage the citizens, organize municipal authority shall awareness programs for segregation of wastes and shall promote recycling or reuse of segregated to materials. The municipal authority shall undertake phased program ensure community participation in waste segregation. For this purpose, the municipal authorities shall arrange regular meetings at quarterly
intervals with representatives of local resident welfare...