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  • Topic: Chiller, Cooling technology, Water
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  • Published : November 11, 2009
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A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycle. A vapor-compression water chiller comprises the 4 major components of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle (compressor, evaporator, condenser, and some form of metering device). These machines can implement a variety of refrigerants. Adsorption chillers use municipal water as the refrigerant and benign silica gel as the desiccant. Absorption chillers utilize water as the refrigerant and rely on the strong affinity between the water and a lithium bromide solution to achieve a refrigeration effect. Most often, pure water is chilled, but this water may also contain a percentage of glycol and/or corrosion inhibitors; other fluids such as thin oils can be chilled as well.

Contents [hide]
1 Use in air conditioning
2 Use in industry
3 Vapor-Compression Chiller Technology
4 How Adsorption Technology Works
5 How Absorption Technology Works
5.1 Industrial chiller technology
6 Industrial chiller selection
7 Refrigerants
8 See also
9 References
10 External links

[edit] Use in air conditioning
In air conditioning systems, chilled water is typically distributed to heat exchangers, or coils, in air handling units, or other type of terminal devices which cool the air in its respective space(s), and then the chilled water is re-circulated back to the chiller to be cooled again. These cooling coils transfer sensible heat and latent heat from the air to the chilled water, thus cooling and usually dehumidifying the air stream. A typical chiller for air conditioning applications is rated between 15 to 1500 tons (180,000 to 18,000,000 BTU/h or 53 to 5,300 kW) in cooling capacity. Chilled water temperatures can range from 35 to 45 degrees Fahrenheit or 1.5 to 7 degrees Celsius, depending upon application requirements.



[edit] Use in industry
In industrial application, chilled water or other liquid from the chiller is pumped through process or laboratory equipment. Industrial chillers are used for controlled cooling of products, mechanisms and factory machinery in a wide range of industries. They are often used in the plastic industry in injection and blow molding, metal working cutting oils, welding equipment, die-casting and machine tooling, chemical processing, pharmaceutical formulation, food and beverage processing, paper and cement processing, vacuum systems, X-ray diffraction, power supplies and power generation stations, analytical equipment, semiconductors, compressed air and gas cooling. They are also used to cool high-heat specialized items such as MRI machines and lasers, and in hospitals, hotels and campuses.

The chillers for industrial applications can be centralized, where each chiller serves multiple cooling needs, or decentralized where each application or machine has its own chiller. Each approach has its advantages. It is also possible to have a combination of both central and decentral chillers, especially if the cooling requirements are the same for some applications or points of use, but not all.

Decentral chillers are usually small in size (cooling capacity), usually from 0.2 tons to 10 tons. Central chillers generally have capacities ranging from ten tons to hundreds or thousands of tons.

Chilled water is used to cool and dehumidify air in mid- to large-size commercial, industrial, and institutional (CII) facilities. Water chillers can be either water cooled, air-cooled, or evaporatively cooled. Water-cooled chillers incorporate the use of cooling towers which improve the chillers' thermodynamic effectiveness as compared to air-cooled chillers. This is due to heat rejection at or near the air's wet-bulb temperature rather than the higher, sometimes much higher, dry-bulb temperature. Evaporatively cooled chillers offer efficiencies better than air cooled, but lower than water cooled.

Water cooled chillers are typically intended for indoor...
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