Topics: Thermodynamics, Refrigeration, Heat Pages: 13 (2871 words) Published: April 27, 2013





Rohit Wani1
Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai-400 019, Ph.No – 9172339408.

Sumit Pawar2
Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai-400 019, Ph.No – 8055827981.


A state-of-the-art review is presented of the different technologies that are available to deliver refrigeration. The demand and supply of refrigeration systems is increasing day by day with changing lifestyle. In last few decades with excess use of CFCs and HCFCs, we have degraded the environment to larger extent. This resulted into adverse effects such as Ozone depletion and Global warming. So technological development based on improvement in energy efficiency should be done. The modern systems include the technologies which are cost effective, energy effective and economically feasible. The new emerging technologies are mainly focused on protection of globe. The review covers introduction about refrigeration and air conditioning, modern trends in refrigeration and air conditioning such asTURBOCOR compressor using magnetic bearing eliminates the problems of lubrication, noise & friction; Paraflow technology which includes pumping the fluid parallel to both the high temperature and low temperature generator which improves the efficiency; Green building consists of thermal insulation of wall, Indoor Air Quality & Non-Conventional Refrigeration; Thermal storage is used to generate ice during Non-Peak Period and use this ice for Refrigeration during Peak period. This trends requires high initial cost but is useful to reduce the ozone effect.


The word ‘refrigerate’ means to chill or freeze a substance, i.e. to lower its temperature by removing some of its heat. Thus Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a substance and rejecting the heat so removed to the atmosphere which is at a higher temperature level.

Air conditioning means conditioning of air for maintaining specific conditions of temperature, relative humidity and low dust levels inside an enclosed space. The conditions to be maintained are governed by the applications. In addition to the control of temperature and relative humidity, it is necessary to maintain proper air circulation and a low dust level in the conditioned space. In earlier days even though the technological enhancements were at its peak they were based on human comfort only, without giving considerations to environmental conditions. Due to this there arose the critical issue of Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion. Hence there is a need of innovating the modern trends by keeping in mind the following factors: • ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential).

• GWP (Global Warming Potential).
• Energy Conservation.
• Cost Effectiveness.
• Energy Efficiency.


The main components of VCR are evaporator, compressor, condenser, and expansion device.

This is the component wherein we get the chilling effect. In evaporator the liquid refrigerant takes in latent heat from the substance to be cooled and gets vaporized. Now the output of the evaporator is low temperature low pressure vapour, which goes to the compressor.

This is the heart of the Vapour Compression Refrigeration. The function of the compressor is to increase the temperature as well as the pressure of the low temperature low pressure vapour refrigerant. So the output of the compressor is high temperature high pressure vapour refrigerant, which goes to condenser.

The output of the compressor which is high temperature high pressure vapour refrigerant gets converted into high temperature high pressure liquid refrigerant by removing latent heat...
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