Childhood

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Name: Estefania Espergue Date: Thursday 27 September

Review of "The Talk of the Child" by Jerome Bruner:
"... Their issues relate to the way the child acquires the uses of their native language ... the emphasis is on pragmatic, in learning how to do things with words ... in particular, how to achieve mutual care and management of shares in common with another person through language ... "

(Bruner, 1983, pp. 12.)

There are different theories about how language develops in humans,certainly, it is amazing that in a relatively short period, as may be three years, a child is able to handle a complex communication system like humans. Traditional behaviourists believed that language learning is the result of imitation, practice, feedback on success, and habit formation. At birth, babies are able to respond to the rhythm of language. They recognize the accent, rhythm and high and low tone. Children imitate the sounds and patterns which they hear around them and receive positive reinforcement for doing so. The learning process takes place when the child comes in contact with an environment that speaks the language in question, and thanks to the social interaction that language develops. Therefore, the learning process is an unconscious process where children learn to speak without explicit instruction.A childs language is constantly developing and changing. Children are actively engaging in communication as they are learning to communicate. The child is the active party in the language-learning process and in the process of making sense of language. His experience and interaction with others give him the background to relate language to the sound/meaning relationship and to the purpose it represents. Children naturally obtain a communicative competence,intrinsically understand the rules of grammar, and gain knowledge of the rules of using language.Linguistic structure comes through the childs own cognitive and social activity. Although there is great variation between individual children and the rate of their language acquisition, there is little variation in the pattern of development between languages. At the age of three years, about 90% of what children say is grammatically correct. The most common errors are to regularize irregular verbs. For example, they may say "I do not sabo" instead of "I do not know." They learned the grammar rule that verbs keep their roots intact and inflectional suffixes are added (in the first person,) as you want to say, but still did not learn the exceptions to the rule.Children learn many functions, but they learn very early the function of negation,in stage one negation is usually expressed by the word “no”,children distinguish between what is good for them and bad, what you like or do not notice and do something they do not like just know that using the word "no", the others understand their message, and they answer with things like this examples such as, "no cookie", "no sleep" etc. The stage 2 talks about sentences that express refusal or prohibition and and many times use “don’t”, “Don’t touch tha”t, then kids include more words, like in the stage 3 they start to include other words that means they same as “no”, like can’t and don’t. On the other hand due to to their little knowledge of grammar, they don’t differ the forms for different persons or tenses: “ I can’t do it.”, “ He don’t want it”.

Relative to stage 4, children start to connect the negative element to the right form of auxialiry verb like “ do “ and “ be “. Although their language system is by now entirely complex, continue to have difficulties with the other forms of denial. “I don’t have no more candies”

Referring to questions where and who is best known for the children is very easy to...
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