The sequence of children’s development for each age is divided into five different aspects: Physical, Social, Emotional and behavioral Communication and language, Intellectual and cognitive.
0 – 3 Years
Physical development at this stage is usually very rapid. At birth babies depend on reflexes for movements to enable them feed or grasp whenever they touch something. By age one, they have much more control over their bodies. They are beginning to crawl, pulling or pushing on things to stand etc.
Between 1 and 2 years walking will begin and toys will be pulled or pushed along whilst walking.
They enjoy trying to feed themselves with finger foods. Waving goodbye becomes fun they will begin to point to what they want and shake their head to mean ‘no’.
Between the ages of 2 and 3 mark making on paper will progress to scribbles as they begin to use pencils etc. Balls start to be kicked and thrown. Bricks will be built into larger towers than before, and they will start to experiment with liquids in play by pouring.
3 – 7 Years
At 3 years children begin to gain more independence. Their mobility and climbing skills will be advancing as they run, jump, catch, walk up and down stairs etc. fine motor skills increases with small objects like puzzles, threading beads etc. Dressing and undressing will be assisted. They will be developing their gross and fine motor skills: Running, Jumping, Catching, throwing and aiming, building, climbing, pedaling, use of scissors, holding a pencil to draw and colour threading small beads sewing stitches etc.
They will have more pencil control and will begin to copy letters and shapes, and draw people. Ball games will develop more structure as they begin to kick with aim. They will begin to learn to hop on one foot, then the other and also to skip. They are able to dress themselves up, do and undo buttons and zips etc. Writing becomes more fluent as copying letter shapes has progressed to words and sentences with greater pencil control. Confidence has increased when playing outside in climbing, jumping from heights and riding a bike. At 7 years children begin to enjoy playing team games as they are now hitting a ball, running, jumping, skipping, swinging.
7 – 12 Years
They grow taller and thinner, losing their baby teeth. They may begin to have hobbies and interest which means they are more practised in some areas e.g. football, singing, dancing etc. Girls begin to show the early signs of puberty.
12 – 16 Years
Physical development during this period is very different in each child. As some may be just beginning to mature physically, others may have already reached full physical maturity.
Boys begin to go through puberty while many girls would have completed the process and have regular periods. At the end of this stage, most boys will be taller than most girls on the average.
16 – 19 Years
Girls may have reached maturity but boys continue to grow until their mid 20’s
COMMUNICATION AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
0 – 3 Years
Children start by recognising familiar voices; like parents voice and they stop crying when the hear them. They later begin to respond to smiles and make noises as well.
By 18 months they are able to make one – two syllable words like mama,baba,dada, bye, out, etc. They have a vocabulary of 3 to 20 words, can join in simple rhymes and enjoy books.
At age 3, they should have a vocabulary of about 300 words. They use more adult forms of speech, making proper sentences and are able to deliver simple messages
3 -7 Years
Between 3-5 years old, children have a vocabulary of 900 – 1500 words, they ask lots of questions, use language for assistant and can vocalise most of their ideas. They continue to enjoy reading books, stories, songs and rhymes. They listen to and can follow simple instructions, can deliver verbal messages.