REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the reviewed literature and studies that are related to the present study. Related Literature
Task-Based Language Teaching
In learning the second language, it is important that one could use it daily in one’s communicative activities, otherwise it will atrophy. Nowadays, one of the latest trends in second language teaching and learning is Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT).
Nunan (2004) defined task as a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target language while their attention is focused on mobilizing their grammatical knowledge in order to express meaning, and in which the intention is to convey meaning rather than to manipulate form. He also distinguished between “real-world or target tasks”, which are communicative acts that the learners achieve through language in world outside the class and “pedagogical tasks” which are carried out in the classroom. In addition, he mentioned that a good language teaching method aims to develop pedagogical tasks close to the real world tasks as possible. Therefore, instructors would create activities that the students experience in the real world.
In Ellis’ (2003) definition of task, he stated that a task is a work plan that requires learners process language pragmatically in order to achieve an outcome that can be evaluated in terms of whether the correct or appropriate propositional content has been conveyed…a task is intended to result in language use that bears resemblance, direct or indirect, to the language is used in the real world. Like other language activities, a task results to productivity on the oral or written skills, and also various cognitive processes.
As Nunan (1989) says, task-based teaching and learning is teaching and learning a language by using language to accomplish open ended tasks. Learners are given a problem or objective to accomplish but are left with some freedom in approaching this problem or objective. If the teacher wishes to assess the students’ oral skill, he/she should take into account content, use of English, clarity, participation attitude, fluency and accuracy (Wilson, 2003).
Beglar and Hunt (2002) proposed how tasks can be used as a basis for teaching and gave detailed account of a twelve-week long task-based learning project. The project, which was called “student-generated action research”, required an entire twelve-week semester to complete. They implemented their project at a major private university with approximately 340 first year students enrolled in second-semester speaking course. The project required the students to work in groups of two or four persons and to choose a topic they were interested in. The groups then designed a questionnaire that would be used to investigate the opinions that a specific target group holds about chosen topic. The findings indicated that learners who participated in the task-based project found the experience to be rewarding, intrinsically interesting, and educationally beneficial. Thus, the final project was generally of a high level.
According to Willis (1996), a task is a goal-oriented activity with a clear purpose. Doing a communication task involves achieving an outcome, creating a final product that can be appreciated by others. Tasks can be used as the central component of a three-part framework: pre-task, task cycle, and language focus. These components have been carefully designed to create four optimum conditions for language acquisition, and thus provide rich learning opportunities to suit different types of learners. Learners get exposure at the pre-task stage, and an opportunity to recall things they know. The task cycle gives them speaking and writing exposure with opportunities for students to learn from each other.
Jacobs and Navas (2000) investigated the clarity of three task phases for a group of 33 Philippine...