In the corporate world today, team working is vital to any organisation striving not only for global success but to maximize its full potential of the company as well as its employees. Throughout years of measuring and analysing team work, several benefits, and in fact a considerable number of limitations have arisen often making it increasingly difficult for managers to create and maintain high performance teams. Through academic models such as Tuckman and The Belbin approach, organisations have been able to realize their strengths, identify weaknesses, and manage successful teams where each member strives to “obtain and utilize complementary skills for the purpose of problem solving and decision making” (McKenna, Eugene. 2010, pg. 363). Establishing what a team is and the difference between a team and a group is important before identifying the advantages and disadvantages of one. A team is a group of individuals who work together for a common purpose with common goals and objectives. Individuals who are incompatible with each other will fail to achieve overall success resulting in not only an individual failure, but also the failure of their entire team. “ (Belbin, R. Merideth. 2010) Tuckman's model and Belbin's theory are the 2 significant models commonly referred to when analysing the benefits and limitations of team working. When a team is developing it normally passes through for main stages in a set sequence. Tuckman’s model includes “dominant task-related and social considerations” (McKenna, Eugene. 2012). The stages are: Forming, storming, norming and performing. Forming is when the focus is on the nature of the job need to be one, and how best the team can do it with their available resources. They decide on a leader and try to work out how to act towards other members. The second stage is storming. There can be an emotional resistance to the demands of the job. This is a result of the individual experiencing a mismatch between the demands of the job and their own interpretation of what the job involves. The control utilized by the team leader may be difficult but each individual is entitled to put forward their own needs and concerns. Thirdly, norming is when an open exchange of views and feelings takes place. Group cohesion tends to develop and there is a willingness to listen to each other’s opinions and suggestions. The team begins to develop socially refraining from any situations, which may cause conflict or ambiguity. The fourth stage – performing – is when solutions to any problems become apparent and constructive attempts are made to complete the jobs. It’s beginning to come together both socially and at task level. Any problems have been resolved, and the group’s energy “is channelled into the tasks in hand”. (Hogg & McInerney, 1990). Meredith Belbin believed that in order to create a successful team it must not only be organised and efficient but also be a team capable of creative thought. His approach begins with the proposition that the most successful way to proceed forward, is by bringing people together boasting a wide variety of skills and expertise to make up a balanced and highly effective team. Before members were allocated to a team they were instructed to undergo a number of psychometric tests to measure their personality and mental ability. Measuring mental ability also included detecting cleverness and creativity. After defining their personality and ability the next step was for the individuals to be formed into teams. There would be trained observers constantly watching and recording the interactions between the team members and the nature of their contributions. (McKenna, Eugene. 2012)
Although proving successful on their own, further analysis of benefits and limitations is carried out today. Organisations are constantly looking for methods of improvement in teamwork as well as constructive criticism allowing them to improve their overall success as a business. Both Belbin and...
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