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Characterisation of Mineral Wastes, Resources and Processing technologies – Integrated waste management for the production of construction material

WRT 177 / WR0115

Industry Sector Study:

Heavy Ceramic (Brick)

September 2007 Funded by:

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Industrial sector study on the utilisation of alternative materials in the manufacture of mineral wool insulation

Compiled by

Dr Evaggelia Petavratzi & John Barton, School of Civil Engineering University of Leeds

(DEFRA Project Code WRT_177) September 2007

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Contents
1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................. 4 2 The brick manufacturing sector in the UK...................................................................................... 4 2.1 Process Overview................................................................................................................... 4 2.2 Sustainability issues and brick manufacture........................................................................... 9 3 Alternative Raw Materials usage in the brick industry ................................................................... 9 3.1 Key Requirements .................................................................................................................. 9 3.2 Substitute Materials .............................................................................................................. 10 3.3 Characterisation framework for the brick manufacture......................................................... 17 4 . Guidance on assessing alternative raw materials for the .......................................................... 21 4.1 Waste exchange and the brick manufacture ........................................................................ 21 4.2 Future Developments ........................................................................................................... 22 5 References................................................................................................................................... 23

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1 Scope
The scope of this case study is to identify ways to use alternative materials as a resource in the manufacturing process of ceramic products, such as bricks. Initially a short literature review covering the brick manufacture and specific sustainability objectives is given to illustrate what actions the sector has taken until today and what changes are envisaged in the near future. Following that, the current status in the use of waste and alternative materials from ceramic manufacturers is discussed and data collected from interviews with the industry are presented. The benefits seen and barriers faced in waste-product pairings are examined in detail and analysis testing required in initiating and establishing a synergy is also recorded. Collected data assisted to the development of a characterisation framework, which sets the fit-for-purpose criteria on the use of alternative materials in the brick making process.

2 The brick manufacturing sector in the UK

2.1 Process Overview The brick manufacture is considered a historic industry and the making process is well established and covered by technical specifications and standards. Bricks are produced from clay extracted from various areas around the UK. The term brick clay is often used by the industry to describle the type of clay and shale used in the manufacture of products such as facing and engineering bricks, ceramic tiles, clay pipes, roofing tiles and other ceramic products (BGS, 2007). From all the above ceramic products, bricks comprise the most dominant one in the UK. Due to the different characteristics and properties of the clay used (i.e soft plastic clays, mudstones) the aesthetics and sometimes the physical/ mechanical properties of bricks vary significantly on a regional level.

Commonly brickworks operate in close proximity to clay...
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