HUMAN MALE HUMAN FEMALE COW
WBC COUNT(#of cells/mm^3 of blood) 7000 7250 7450
RBC COUNT(# of cells/mm^3 of blood) 540000 4600000 8000000
HEMATOCRIT (%) 47 42 37
[Hb](g/100ml of blood) 16 14 12
MCHC(%) 34 33 32
1. RBC count, hemotocrit and hemoglobin concentration are higher in males than females. It is because males generally have larger muscle mass and perform more physical activities which require a higher demand of oxygen production. Therefore, more RBC production is required to meet the higher demand of oxygen. Hemoglobin enables the red cells to transport oxygen to the tissue; thus, its concentration increases correspondingly. Hemotocrit is the volume of packed red cells found in 100ml of blood. Since it also corresponds to the RBC count, hemotocrit concentration increases as well. The estrogen production in female suppresses the erythrocytes found in the RBC whereas the sex hormone, testosterone found in male stimulates the production of erythrocytes also explains the difference in males and females.
2. When training at high altitude, there will be a decrease of atmospheric pressure of oxygen so that less oxygen will be pushed into the lungs, resulting in a decrease in partial pressure and hyposia. In other words, the body is not producing sufficient amount of red blood cell to meet up the increase demands of oxygen. Hormone erythropoietin is then secreted by the kidneys to stimulate the production of RBC from bone marrow. Hemoglobin will also be increased to facilitate oxygen delivery to the tissues. Hemotocrit, the concentration of RBC in a sample of blood, increases as well. The elevated level of RBC counts allows the body to be more efficient at carrying and circulating blood throughout the body, therefore, increases the athletes performance in the race.
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