Topics: DNA, Biochip, National identification number Pages: 9 (2416 words) Published: November 27, 2012

Principle of biochip
The biochip technology
Working of a biochip
General applications of biochip
Biomedical applications of biochip


“Biochips”-The most exciting future technology is an outcome of the fields of computer science, electronics & biology. A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in one second, a biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. Biochips helped to dramatically accelerate the identification of the estimated 80,000 genes in human DNA, an ongoing world-wide research collaboration known as the Human genome project. Developing a biochip plat-form incorporates electronics for addressing, reading out, sensing and controlling temperature and, in addition, a handheld analyzer capable of multiparameter identification. The biochip platform can be plugged in a peripheric standard bus of the analyzer device or communicate through a wireless channel. Biochip technology has emerged from the fusion of biotechnology and micro/nanofabrication technology. Biochips enable us to realize revolutionary new bio analysis systems that can directly manipulate and analyze the micro/nano-scale world of bio molecules, organelles and cells.  


What is biochip?

A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed.

Biochips are any microprocessor chips that can be used in Biology. Biochip was developed in 1983 for monitoring fisheries, the rapid technological advances of the biochemistry and semiconductor fields in the 1980s led to the large scale development of biochips in the 1990s. Biochip was made by Fred Sanger and Walter Gilbert. Biochip was invented in 4G generation & the development is still continued. Biochips were largely a "platform" technology which consisted of several separate, yet integrated components.


While designing the biochips, a semiconducting organic molecule is inserted into a protein frame work; the whole unit is fixed onto a protein support. In biochips the electrical signals can pass through the semiconducting organic molecule.


The biochip implants system consists of two components: a transponder and a reader or scanner. The transponder is the actual biochip implant. The biochip system is radio frequency identification (RFID) system, using low-frequency radio signals to communicate between the biochip and reader. The reading range or activation range, between reader and biochip is small, normally between 2 and 12 inches.


The transponder is the actual biochip implant. It is a passive transponder, meaning it contains no battery or energy of its own. In comparison, an active transponder would provide its own energy source, normally a small battery. Because the passive biochip contains no battery, or nothing to wear out, it has a very long life, up to 99 years, and no maintenance. Being passive, it's inactive until the reader activates it by sending it a lowpower electrical charge. The reader "reads" or "scans" the implanted biochip and receives back data (in this case an identification number) from the biochip. The communication between biochip and reader is via low-frequency radio waves.

The biochip transponder consists of four parts:

1.Computer Microchip:
The microchip stores a unique identification number from 10 to 15 digits long. The storage capacity of the current microchips is limited, capable of storing only a single ID number....
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