Janice M. Brown
Aspects of Psychology
November 8, 2012
Behaviorism, Cognitive, and Humanistic
Behaviorism, cognitive and humanistic are all perspectives (or theories) of psychology. Behaviorism is a perspective that suggests that all behaviors are learned. What I mean by that is according to John B. Watson who founded the school of psychology, suggests the behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed. [ (Cherry, 2012) ] Based on article written by Kendra Cherry, behaviorism is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning and there are two major types of conditioning which are Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning. “Classical conditioning is a technique used in behavioral training in which a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response” [ (Cherry, 2012) ] Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. [ (Cherry, 2012) ] Behaviorism is not used as much as it was during the middle of the 20th-century, but it remains an influential force in psychology. Animal trainers, parents, teachers, and many others make use of basic behavioral principles to help teach new behaviors and discourage unwanted ones. An example of a behavioral approach in psychology is when one sets up an incentive system in order for a child to do chores. They do a chore they get a reward. Once they reach a certain amount they can turn their reward in form something larger. The good thing about behaviorism is that it is based upon observable behaviors, so it is easier to quantify and collect data and information when conducting research, but is criticized for being a one- dimensional approach to understanding human behavior. Cognitive perspective also known as cognitive psychology focuses on mental processes such as a memory, thinking, problem solving, language and decision-making. [ (Cherry,...