Aspects of Development
Rules, what rules? According to (Slavin, 2012), “Society could not function without rules that tell people how to communicate with one another, how to avoid hurting others and how to get along in life generally.” In this paper you will not only learn how these children knew these rules but you will learn about the development of four children. You will learn how they develop cognitively, emotionally, socially, morally and spiritually. Sensorimotor Stage
According to Bailey, a two year old in daycare, her favorite memory was going to eat at a restaurant. This answer fits right in with Piaget’s sensorimotor stage of cognitive development. Bailey shows that she can not quite remember a certain event but in fact, that was where she was going that night. She simply told me the last thing that she remembers and that was in her short term memory. When asked what she was afraid of , she responded with something that she could actually see that frightened her. She was afraid of lightning, which is something visual that she sees as a threat to her. Emotionally she has a fear of an actual object. Socially she told me the kids in her class were mean because they hit. Bailey has ben involved in peer play and ona day that she was hit by another kid, she reflected on that one day and that one incident to describe her entire class. According to Piaget “ As people develop their cognitive abilities, their understanding of moral problems also become more sophisticated (Slavin, 2012, p. 57). This explains why Bailey responded to the question, “What is cheating? by saying “when you take toys away.” This stage of moral development is what Erikson describes as the psychological emphasis to hold on and to let go. Spiritually, Bailey believes God is sweet. She is simply repeating what she has heard other children her age say and how they perceive God (See Appendix A). Preconventional Stage
When referring to Kinley, a six year old Kindergarten student, she is in the preoperational stage of Piaget’s Theory. She is able to think about things and she remembered her favorite memory as being at the movies with her daddy. She could visualize in her mind, her laughing and having a good time at the movie. When asked her biggest fear, she explained the woods and creatures in the woods. Even though she hasn’t seen any of the creatures she says she know they live there. When asked about the kids in her school and if they were nice or mean she responded they are nice because they play with other people who do not have anyone to play with. This is characterized as peer acceptance. “One of the most important aspects of peer relations in middle childhood is peer acceptance (Slavin, 2012, p.66). Kinley likes to help others and play the nice guy role in her class. “Well-accepted and popular children tend to be cooperative, helpful, and caring and are rarely disruptive or aggressive (Slavin, 2012, p. 66). When asked of her moral belief in cheating she responded “in a race if you don’t start on the start line you are cheating so you will win.” “When people consider moral dilemmas, it is their reasoning that is important, not their final decision, according to Lawrence Kohlberg (Slavin, 2012, p. 59). According to Kinley, when asked about her spiritual beliefs, she responded that she felt loving to God. She understands that he loves us and takes care of us so she loves him back (See Appendix B). Concrete Operational Stage/Conventional level
When talking with Abby, a 12 year old, 6th grader, she shows characteristics of the concrete operational stage. When asked her most memorable moment in her life she replied when her great-grandmother passed away. She shows characteristics of this stage of development because this is the stage at which children develop the capacity for logical reasoning ad understanding of conservation but can use these...