1. Site selection
Before purchasing a land for building construction, it is mandatory to conduct a thorough survey to make sure that the characteristics of the proposed site suit the development concept. In the site selection process, the following things should be carefully examined.
Refer to ordnance survey maps to determine the nearby features such as location of the site, roads, footpath, facilities and so on.
➢ Conduct a measurement survey to establish site dimension and levels.
➢ Observe surface characteristics such as trees, steep slopes, existing building, rock
outcrops, and wells.
➢ Get the information from the local authority whether the proposed site comes under
the preservation area or part of it.
➢ Investigate subsoil. Use trial pit and boring to determine the soil quality and water
➢ Consider flood potential, possibilities for drainage of water table, filling ponds and
diversion of rivers and streams.
➢ Consult local utilities provider to get to know about the underground and overhead
services or services which are proximity to the site.
➢ Pay special attention on filled ground and cracks on ground and existing building.
➢ Consider about scale and character of the nearby building for the proposed site.
➢ Choose best location for the building (considering socio-economic characters)
(Chudley and Greeno, 2006).
2. Site investigation
The process of site investigation takes place early in the development and even before the purchase of the land. The process reveals a huge amount of information, which often has a major influence on the design chosen. The main objective of site investigation is to collect systematically and recorded all necessary data that will be needed or will assist to the design and construction process of the proposed work. Site investigation is essential to design a foundation. It is mandatory to calculate the loads on foundations and determine the nature of subsoil and its bearing capacity. In addition to this, site selection is must to understand the behavior of subsoil under ground water level and the possibility of ground movement. Moreover, it can be understood the nature of the subsoil by studying the geological surveying and trial pit or boring of the nearby building. The collected date from the site should be presented in form of fully annotated and dimensioned plans and sections. Anything nearby the site which affects the proposed work should also be investigated in the site selection process. The typical data that are required in the site investigation process are as follows
➢ Boundary hedges or fences
➢ Existing tree types, girth, spread and length
➢ Property boundary lines and location of site
➢ Existing building
➢ Details of above ground obstructions such as transmission lines
➢ Fully data on utility services specially, type, size, locations of all services. Eg. Gas
line, waterline, telephone and so on
➢ Subsoil investigation data of soil types and property together with ground water
➢ Trees and buildings on adjacent site (Chudley and Greeno, 2006)
➢ Location of tipping facilities, distance to tip, tipping fee
➢ existing buildings that need to be demolished
➢ site access
➢ labor issues such as availability of skilled labor
➢ issues related main services such as water, electricity and so on
➢ vicinity of site and surrounding areas (Riley and Cotgrave, 2004)
3. Classification of soil and soil investigation
4. The stability and integrity of any structure depend upon its ability to transfer loads to the ground which supports it. The nature of the structure, its foundations and...