Construction Technology

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INTRODUCTION



AIM  Understand and realize the need building structures  To give a general idea on how the process of building engaging a site and the understanding of substructure, superstructure and primary elements.

THE IDEA OF A BUILDING ENGAGING A SITE
of

INTRODUCTION : The Building


We build building because we need shelter from the element that are beyond our control  Hot  Cold  Danger  Others  ……….

INTRODUCTION : The Building


Why do people need proper buildings?






Not equipped with ‘survival kit’: eg. Shell, claw, fur etc. Take longer time to be independent (16 years still underage) Longer life cycle (average 50 years)

INTRODUCTION : The Building


Within the shelter we need to ‘conditioned’ the environment to our comfort need:      

Air ~ warmer or cooler. Light ~ less at day and more at night. Services Communications Water Dispose of water

ASPECTS OF DESIGNING BUILDING



There are 2 important aspects in making building:  Building performance  Building construction

ASPECTS OF DESIGNING BUILDING



The architect/designer are limited to certain physical limitation:      

How much land How heavy a building soil can support How long a structural span is feasible Materials performance in a given environment Construction budget Legal restriction on a building

Sequence of Building Operation
Soil Investigation Building set out (building position) Top soil stripped & stocked pilled Foundation trench excavation Pouring concrete foundation Bricklaying Concrete floor slab Brick wall leveled for DPC Wall, door & window Floor joist, roof, framework & covers Services, decoration, cleaning of floor, windows & doors

Clear away roots and stumps out of overgrowth bushes and tree.

Demolition of existing buildings and clearance of the area of rubbish.

Soil investigation.

Site work preparation and substructure progress.

Building setting out.

Excavation work.

STAGES OF CONSTRUCTING A BUILDING(BUNGALOW)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

CLEARING OFF SITE SOIL INVESTIGATION BUILDING SET-OUT EXCAVATION FOUNDATION & PILING GROUND BEAM COLUMN FIRST FLOOR BEAM FIRST FLOOR COLUMN FLOOR SLAB ROOF BEAM

STAGES OF CONSTRUCTING A BUILDING(BUNGALOW)
12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

R.C. STAIRCASE ROOF TRUSS BUILD-UP BRICKWALLS DOOR & WINDOW OPENINGS SERVICES ROOF TILES WALL PLASTERING ELECTRICAL FITTINGS FINISHES & FURNISHING CLEARING & CLEANING (refer to diagram during lecture)

9
Roof Beam

13

Roof Truss Roof Tiles

7 5

Wall Plastering Services Electrical Fittings

14 12 11 6

1st Floor Column

4 8 3
Ground Beam

1st Floor Beam

15

Door & Window Openings Floor Slab

R.C. Staircase Column

(Grd. & 1st Floor)

Foundation & Piling

1

2
Build-up Brickwalls

10 Diagram showing the Stages of Constructing a Building (Bungalow)

PRIMARY ELEMENTS




The primary elements of a building include those of Substructure and Superstructure, that is those, which give strength and stability to the building. These are the basic structural members of a building, without these the building will not be able to stand.

PRIMARY ELEMENTS
Primary elements of a building include:  Foundation  Beam and Column  Wall (load-bearing)  Floor  Roof

SUPERSTRUCTURE & SUBSTRUCTURE


Substructure has been identified as that part of a building which is below ground level and supports the superstructure. (refer to diagram during lecture)



The main purpose of the substructure is to transfer the weight (load) of the superstructure to the surrounding (subsoil) ground. The substructure is usually the foundation.

Diagram showing the Substructure & Superstructure

SUBSTRUCTURE



Elements of substructure:  Site works  Excavations  Foundations  Basements  Subsoil Drainage  Retaining Walls

SUPERSTRUCTURE


Superstructure carries the loads (weight)...
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