Unit 3 Contemporary Geographical Issues 1.30 pm to 4.00 pm Monday 30 January 2012 For this paper you must have: an AQA 12-page answer book. You may use a calculator.
Time allowed 2 hours 30 minutes Instructions Use black ink or black ball-point pen. Pencil should only be used for drawing. Write the information required on the front of your answer book. The Examining Body for this paper is AQA. The Paper Reference is GEOG3. Answer three options: one from each Section. In Section C, you must not answer the same option as those chosen in Sections A and B. Use sketch maps, diagrams and specific examples, where appropriate. Do all rough work in your answer book. Cross through any work that you do not want to be marked.
Information The marks for questions are shown in brackets. The maximum mark for this paper is 90. You will be marked on your ability to: – use good English – organise information clearly – use specialist vocabulary where appropriate.
Advice You are advised to spend about 45 minutes on each of Sections A and B and about 60 minutes on Section C.
Section A Answer one option from this section. You must not answer the option that you will answer in Section C.
Plate Tectonics and Associated Hazards
Total for this option: 25 marks
Study Figure 1 which shows the relationship between shaking intensity (measured by the Mercalli Scale) and different types of building structure. Describe and comment on the information provided. Figure 1 MERCALLI SCALE (7 marks)
Type of building structure Adobe (baked mud and clay) Unreinforced masonry Reinforced masonry (non-seismic design) Steel framed buildings Reinforced masonry (seismic design)
VII (Very Strong)
Source: US Geological Survey
The numbers are the percentages of buildings damaged or collapsed.
Outline the features of seismic waves.
Evaluate the management strategies adopted following one earthquake that you have (10 marks) studied.
3 Option 2 0 4 Weather and Climate and Associated Hazards Total for this option: 25 marks
Study Figure 2 which shows changes, compared with 1961 – 1990 averages, in temperature, sea level and northern hemisphere snow cover. This information came from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007. Describe and comment on the changes shown. Figure 2 (7 marks)
0.5 Difference from 1961 – 1990 average temperature (°C)
(a) Global average surface temperature
– 0.5 (b) Global average sea level 50 Difference 0 from 1961 – 1990 – 50 average level – 100 (mm) – 150 (c) Northern hemisphere snow cover Difference from 1961 – 1990 average area (million km2) 4
–4 1850 1875 1900 1925 Year 1950 1975 2000
Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – Assessment Report 4 (2007)
Describe the possible effects of global warming on a tropical region that you have (8 marks) studied. Discuss the responses to global warming on an international scale. (10 marks) Turn over
Ecosystems: Change and Challenge
Total for this option: 25 marks
Study Figure 3 which shows variations in plant and fly species in different grazing areas on Salisbury Plain, a grassland area in southern England. Much of this area is used by livestock farmers. Describe and comment on the variations shown. (7 marks)
70 60 50 Number of species 40 30 20 10 0 Ungrazed Grazed by cattle over a long time Grazed by sheep over a long time Recently grazed by cattle Recently grazed by sheep...