Water Issues

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 19
  • Published : March 3, 2012
Open Document
Text Preview
1ST BUIDING TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT NATIONAL CONFERENCE
27TH – 29TH 2009

THEME: CHALLENGES IN BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES.

ACCESS TO POTABLE WATER SUPPLY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIAN CITIES, TOWNS AND URBAN CENTRES – A CASE STUDY OF AUCHI, EDO STATE.

BY
1 2 3 4 FADELE .S .O., USMAN .D. D., ELAMAH .D., EBUBE .O. C.

(1,2,3, & 4)

DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGY AUCHI POLYTECHNIC
AUCHI EDO STATE

ACCESS TO POTABLE WATER SUPPLY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NIGEIRAN CITIES, TOWNS AND URBAN CENTRES – A CASE STUDY OF AUCHI, EDO STATE.

ABSTRACT
Water is important to life, and the World possesses fixed amount of water, which is found to occur naturally in various forms, such as oceans, lakes, rivers, streams, underground waters, ice caps, glaciers and rain. This water plays an important part in maintaining the balance of the world’s weather, especially through the presence of water vapour in the atmosphere. Water is also essential for the growth of vegetation such as trees, vegetables and food crops as well as raising farm animals. Man needs a small amount of water for drinking but much greater amounts are needed for washing and waste disposal, in homes, industry and commerce. The daily consumption of water in some cities is less that 10 litres per person on average (Oyebande 1993 and Morenikeji 2006). This is at variance with the acceptable International Standard of 180 litres per person per day and The Third National Development plan of 112 litres per person per day (Okpalla 1986). The total supply of natural water in the earth is enormous and should be adequate for man’s needs. However, local shortages do occur especially when droughts are combined with poor management resources. This paper dealt with sources of water, quality and quantity of potable water supply to persons, in Urban centres and towns with Auchi, the Headquarter of Estako West Local Government Area of Edo State as case study. The paper also investigated at the activities of the state’s utility Board and factor responsible for its low level performance. The paper recommends the need for private and public sector participation in water supply and distribution if the standard set by the UN is to be realized.

Keywords:-Potable water, sustainable development, acceptable standard.

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Water ranked 2nd in the hierarchy of human needs, with air taking the lead. (Bella – Omunagbe and Fadele 2006). Scientists described water as a compound, a combination of Oxygen and Hydrogen atoms. An atom is a tiny bit of matter much too small to see. Water is made of one atom of oxygen (O2 ) and two atoms of hydrogen (2H2). The three atoms make the tiniest possible drop of water called water molecule.

Water can be a liquid, a solid or a gas. Liquid water flows. Solid water is ice. Water in the form of gas is called water vapour which most often rises to the atmosphere after the sun had heated the surface water. Water being one of the free gift of the nature is found in every part of the world, liquid water found on the surface of the earth as oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers and swamps. Water droplets form rain clouds. Liquid water makes beads of dew on the grass. It seeps down into ground. It fills underground lakes and streams. Ice falls as hail or crystals of snow. Ice forms on ponds and frosty windows panes. Huge sheets of ice makes glaciers and Ice caps at the North and South poles. Water vapour is always present in the air. Water vapour makes clouds in the sky. Water vapour makes fog that hangs close to the ground. It is the stream that comes out of a tea-kettle. Provision of potable water to the entire citizens of the state is one of the basic responsibility of every successive government (federal, state or local), and this had...
tracking img