Basic Electronics

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MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
A constituent institute of Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) - Deemed University

MANIPAL – 576 104, KARNATAKA, INDIA.

Subject Code: ECE – 101/201

BASIC ELECTRONICS COURSE MATERIAL
For

1ST & 2ND Semester B.E. (Revised Credit System)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

CONTENTS
Module 1. – SEMI CONDUCTOR THEORY Mr. Hemanth Kumar A.R., Lecturer, Pg. 27 – 49 Pg. 1 – 26

Module 2. – PN JUNCTION DIODE AND ITS APPLICATIONS Mr. Jagadish Nayak., Senior Lecturer,

Module 3. – TRANSISTORS AND APPLICATIONS Mr. H.V. Balachandra Achar., Senior Lecturer,

Pg. 50 – 72

Module 4. – COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Mr. A. Gopalakrishna Pai., Lecturer,

Pg. 73 – 82

Module 5. – OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS Mr. Krishnamurthy Nayak., Lecturer,

Pg. 83 – 96

Module 6. – DIGITAL ELECTRONICS Mr. Gautham M.A., Lecturer,

Pg. 97 – 131

Co-ordinated & Compiled By: Mr. Ghanashyama Prabhu, Senior Lecturer,

Head of the Dept. Dr. Puttamadappa C

Basic Electronics Course Material MODULE 1

ECE 101/201

SEMI CONDUCTOR THEORY

1.1

Introduction We know the importance of using the materials like copper, aluminium etc. in

electrical applications. This is because copper, aluminium etc are good conductors. Similarly, some materials like glass, wood, paper etc. Also, find wide applications in electrical and electronic applications. These are called insulators. There is another category of materials whose ability to carry current, called conductivity, lies between that of conductor and insulators. Such materials are known as semi conductors. Germanium and silicon are two well-known semiconductors.

1.2

Atoms and elements Ordinary matter is made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons and is composed of

atoms. An atom consists of a tiny nucleus made up of protons and neutrons, on the order of 20,000 times smaller than the size of the atom. The outer part of the atom consists of a number of electrons equal to the number of protons, making the normal atom electrically neutral. A chemical element consists of those atoms with a specific number of protons in the nucleus; this number is called the atomic number. The atoms of an element may differ in the number of neutrons; atoms with different neutron numbers are said to be different isotopes of the element. Elements are represented by a chemical symbol, with the atomic number and mass number sometimes affixed as indicated below. The mass number is the sum of the numbers of neutrons and protons in the nucleus.

Constituents of Atoms The electrons, protons and neutrons, which make up an atom, have definite charges and masses. If they were modeled as hard spheres with the same density, they would have the relative sizes shown. While that model should not be taken as reality, it gives us a convenient object to which to attach the definite properties of the particles.

Dept. of E&C Engg., MIT Manipal

3

Basic Electronics Course Material

ECE 101/201

Structure of the Atom Matter has mass and takes up space. Atoms are basic building blocks of matter, and cannot be chemically subdivided by ordinary means. The word atom is derived from the Greek word atom, which means indivisible. The Greeks concluded that matter could be broken down into particles to small to be seen. These particles were called atoms. Atoms are composed of three types of particles: protons, neutrons, and electron. Protons and neutrons are responsible for most of the atomic mass e.g. in a 150 person 149 lbs, 15 oz are protons and neutrons while only 1 oz. is electrons. The mass of an electron is very small (9.108x10-28 grams). Both the protons and neutrons reside in the nucleus. Protons have a positive (+) charge, neutrons have no charge --they are neutral. Electrons reside in orbital around the nucleus. They have a negative charge (-). It is the number of protons that determines the atomic number, e.g., H = 1. The number of protons in an...
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