Anatomy: The atoms

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Unit 2 Lecture Study Guide

1) What are the parts of an atom? Where are the subatomic particles found?

The atoms are the smallest units of matter with their own chemical characteristics. The atoms are divided into 2 parts. The first part is the central nucleus and the electron cloud. The central nucleus contains very heavy particles and the electron cloud contains very light moving particles. The subatomic particles are the protons, neutrons, and the electrons. They are located within the atom and the electrons spin rapidly around the central nucleus.

2) How does the Atomic Mass # differ from the Atomic #?

The atomic mass number differs from the atomic number is the atomic mass number is adding together the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. The atomic number defines the element which is the number in the nucleus.

3) What is an isotope? Give an example (show how it is an isotope).

Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers due to different numbers of neutrons. An example of an isotope is Uranium. On the periodic table the atomic number is 238 which is the elemental form. The example of an isotope is Uranium 235.

4) Compare and contrast the 3 basic types of chemical bonds and give an example of each.

The three types of chemical bonds are ionic, covalent, and hydrogen. An ionic bond is formed between atoms with opposite’s electrical charges. When an atom loses electrons it has a positive charge, and it is called and cation. When an atom gains an electron it has a negative charge, and it is called an anion. An example of an ionic bond is sodium chloride or table salt. The sodium atom has one electron in its outer shell which is easily lose resulting in a positive sodium ion. Chlorine has 7 electrons in its outer shell and adding one electron forms a negative chloride ion. The sodium ion and the chloride ion will bond together in an ionic bond to form sodium chloride.

Another type of a chemical bond is a covalent bond in which atoms share, rather than gaining or losing electrons to form molecules. In covalent bonds each atom contributes the same number of atoms, called an electron pair. There are also polar and non-polar covalent bonds. A non-polar covalent bond is when molecules that share electrons have symmetrical shapes, and a similar charge. A polar covalent bond is a bond between two non-metals with different electronegativities. An example of a covalent bond is H2O – water.

The last type of chemical bond is called a hydrogen bond. Hydrogen bonds weak attractions between the positive, hydrogen side of one polar molecule and the negative side of another polar molecule. Hydrogen bonds between water molecules cause surface tension, which repels small particles. An example of a hydrogen bond is H2O ↔ H2O. Hydrogen bonding is an extra strong dipole-dipole attraction between polar molecules that contain hydrogen bonded to a strongly electronegative atom with a small radius

5) Why is pH important in Anatomy?

The pH scale has an inverse relationship with the concentration of hydrogen ions.

More H+ ions means lower pH, less H+ ions means higher pH. pH is important to anatomy because the body functions correctly at a certain pH level. If the pH is off the bodies functions work worked correctly.

9) Name the 4 main Organic Molecules in Biochemistry. Describe each one, and provide an example. What are the “building blocks” of each molecule? For example, protein = Amino Acid.

6) Carbohydrates: monosaccharaides

Carbohydrates are organic molecules with a carbon/hydrogen/oxygen ratio of about 1:2:1, including sugars and starches. There are 3 main categories of carbohydrates:

(1) Monosaccharaides: simple sugars, glucose, fructose.

(2) Disaccharides: two simple sugars condensed by dehydration synthesis.

Disaccharides (such...
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