Microbiology midterm studyguide

Topics: Bacteria, Cell, Eukaryote Pages: 9 (1623 words) Published: March 23, 2014
Microbiology Lecture Notes:

I.​Cell​​​​​​​​​1/27/14
​1. Robert Hooke
​2. Basic unit of structure and function in all living things. ​​a. Unicellular à Microscopic
​​b. Multicellular à Microscopic & Macroscopic
​​c. 2 main cell groups:
1. Eukaryote = True Nucleus
2. Prokaryote= Bacteria (only)
​a. Karyo = nucleus, pro= pre, Eu= true
​3. Components of a cell:
​​a. Nucleus: brain of cell; has nuclear membrane/envelope ​​​1. DNA à Chromosomes (Genes) à make protein à
​​​ Macromolecule.
​​​2. Mitosis, Cell Division
b. Nucleoid Material (Bacterial DNA; note: no nuclear
membrane.
​1. Essential Genes (instructions).
​2.Nucleoid Material ONLY used for bacteria
​​a. Single Chromosome
​​​i. Human chromosomes à ROD
c. Protoplasm: Composed of Karyoplasm & Cytoplasm
​1. Water w/ particles dissolved/ suspended.
​​a. Cytoplasm= water based w/ organelles.
​​​1. Eukaryotic à Ribosomes, mitochondria, ​​​​ chloroplasts in cytoplasm. ​​​2. Prokaryotic à Ribosomes in cytoplasm.
d. Cell Membrane: Flexible Structure; phospholipid bi-layer. ​1. Proteins à Peripheral; integral
​2. Semi-permeable (selective).
​3. Bacteria make ATP/metabolism mostly at cell
​ Membrane.
e. Cell Wall à Plant/Plant-like cell **RIGID**
​1. Obtain Nutrients Via:
​​i. Absorption
​​ii. Ingestion
​​iii. Photosynthesis
​2. Why is a cell wall needed?
​​i. Prevents swelling & bursting
​​ii. this can happen w/ photosynthesis.
​3. Bacteria
​​i. Most Bacterial cells have a cell wall.
​​​a. Absorption (water-based)
​​​b. Need c. wall to prevent bursting & swelling.
​​ii. Typical bacterial cell:
​​​a. Nucleoid material
​​​b. Cytoplasm à ribosome’s
​​​c. Cell membrane
​​​d. Cell wall (MOST)
​​iii. Chemical in cell wall (LAB); staining techniques. • Viruses:
1. Consists of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA)
​a. and Protein coat
​b. Not considered a living thing à NOT A CELLà
​​A particle.
2. Needs a host cell (Human, other animal, bacterial & plant). ​ a. Can only do harm if they attach to your cells. ***
​ 4.​Cellular Characteristics:
​​​a. Reproduce (mitosis)
​​​​i. Exceptions à RBC’s & Platelets
​​​​ii. Dead bacteria à defined by lost ability to reproduce. ​​ b. They use “food” as a nutrient source à “an energy source” ​​​c. Synthesizeà cellular components.
​​​d. Excrete wastes.
​​​e. Respond to changes in their environment.
​​​f. Mutate à change in DNA (humans à always bad)
​​​​i. Diseased state, etc. (in humans)
​​​​ii. Mutations in bacteria can be good or bad.
​​5. ​Taxonomy
​​​a. Study of classifying, identify and naming organisms. ​​​b. Kingdom à Phylum à Class à OrderàFamilyàGenusàSpecies. ​​​​(Specific).
​​​c. Genus, species. à Staphylococcus, epidermidis.
​​​​i. Caps, lowercase; typing à Italics. (pg. 15 in bk). ​​​d. Taxonomy à Binomial system (Linnaeus).
Kingdoms
Pro/Eu karyote
Details
Monera
Prokaryotes
BACTERIA!!! ONLY
Protista
Eukaryotes
Protozoa; animal like, unicellular organisms
Fungi
Eukaryotes
Mold, mildew, mushrooms, yeast
Animal
Eukaryotes

Plant
Eukaryotes

​ 6.​Whitakker
​​​a. Obtain Nutrients via:
​​​​i. Absorption (nutrients à dissolved).
​​​​ii. Ingestion (taking in solid/ particulate matter) ​​​​iii. Photosynthesis Pigment à cell needs chlorophyll. ​​
​​​b. Examples/notes
​​​​i. Bacteria à Mycoplasmà lacks cell wall
​​​​ii. Cyanobacteria à has chlorophyll à photosynthesis ​​​​iii. Most bacteria absorb
​​​c. How organisms from other kingdoms obtain nutrients: ​​​​i. Most protozoa à ingest
​​​​ii. Fungi à absorb for nutrients à has a cell wall (no bursting). ​​​​iii. Animal à ingest
​​​​iv. Plant à photosynthesis
​​7.​Ribosomal RNA
​​​a. How to identify; what we look like.
​​​b. Species à collection of proteins à expressed rRNA ​​​c. 3 Distinct Cell Lines
​​​​i. Archaeobacteria
​​​​​a. Adapt easily à survive longerà simpler in structure ​​​​​ à more primitive.
​​​​ii. Eubacteria
​​​​​a. Cell Membrane, cell wall,...
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