Basic Ecological Concept

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Basic Ecological Concept
Levels of Organization
Cells- are composed of Cell Membrane, Nucleus and Protoplasm. Tissue-is an aggregation of cells performing a common function or functions. Organs- is the aggregation of tissues usually forming a definite shapes, and performing a definite function within an organ system. Organ System-is a group of organs that perform coordinated functions together to keep the organism alive and functioning well. The scope of the biology includes the study of all these and may extend to the level of the organism such as behavior, and the organism mechanism for interacting with its environment. Ecology started from the study of the organism-a group of organisms that is similar in appearance, behavior and genetic make up belong to the same species. The biological species concept state that members of a species are those individual that are genetically related enough to be able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Population

The group of the individuals belonging to one species and is found together in a define area at a certain time. A population possesses characteristics that more empirically describe the group such as: population Density, Dispersion, Natality, Mortality, Growth, Age Distribution, and Reproductive potential. Population Density

Describe the degree of crowdedness of a population in a given area. Crude Density may be computed from the number of individuals or the total population biomass per unit space. Ecological or specific Density describes the number or biomass per unit of space that is actually available to the population. Dispersion

The distribution of organisms over the space where they are found. Three pattern have been observed: clumped, random, and uniform. The clumped Distribution is the most common type of pattern since the soil or medium on which organisms are found in nature are not uniform. Random Distribution is rare in nature, occurring only where the soil is generally rich so that the plants can grow and thrive anywhere. Uniform Distribution is found in artificial cultivated areas. Natality/Morality

Natality corresponds to what is termed in humans as birth rate or the number of new individuals produced in the pupolation for a period of time. Morality is known as death rate in human demographics, or the number of deaths in a given time period. Growth

Is an important feature of a population since the increases or decreases of population size determines its interaction with other populations in the community and its impact on the environment. Age Distribution

Is classifies the population according to age brackets or to general age groups such as prereproductive, reproductive and postreproductive. Reproductive Potential
The Reproductive potential of a population is its theoretical capacity to produce the maximum number of offspring in ideal conditions. Community
The community has properties that may be used to further clarify its composition and its interaction with the environment. Like species dominance, diversity, relative abundance, species richness and evenness. Dominance

Is attained by a species in a community by virtue of a greater number of individuals, or by size such as the overwhelming sizes of sequoia trees, or any other attribute that enables the species to control the community. Diversity

Diversity is the opposite of dominance, a case where no single species has greater number or biomass or other relative importance than other species in the community. Ecosystem
The basic unit of ecology because it includes the living and nonliving components. The setting includes necessary nonliving components such as soil, water, air, and the cycles that keep and renew them, which are collectively called the biogeochemical cycles. Bioenergetics

Energy is necessary for maintaining the life processes of organisms. The sun is the source of all the energy that goes into the ecosystem. The solar system is radiated on to the earth where a tiny fraction...
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