Chapter 6 Outline
I. Population Dynamics and Carrying Capacity
* Populations change in size, density, and age distribution; most members of populations live together in clumps or groups.
* Three general patterns in a habitat: clumping, uniform distribution, and random dispersion. Most live in clumps or groups.
* Availability of resources varies from place to place.
* Living in groups offers better protection from predators.
* Some predator species live in packs to better have a chance to get a meal.
* Temporary groups may form for mating and caring for young.
* Uniform pattern distribution may occur where a resource is scarce.
* Four variables influence population size: births, deaths, immigration, emigration.
* Increase in population -birth and immigration.
* Decrease in population - death and emigration.
* Age structure of a pop. is usually described as the pre-reproductive stage, reproductive stage and post-reproductive stage.
* large reproductive stage is likely to increase, while a population with a large post-reproductive stage is likely to decrease.
* No population can grow indefinitely due to limited resources such as light, water, and nutrients and also due to competitors and/or predators.
biotic potential is the populations capacity for growth.
* intrinsic rate of increase is the rate of population growth with unlimited resources.
* Rapidly growing populations have four characteristics.
* reproduce early in life
* short periods between generations
* long reproductive lives
* multiple offspring each time they reproduce.
* Environmental resistance - factors that limit population growth.
* Carrying capacity is determined by biotic potential and environmental resistance. This is the number of a species’ individuals that can be sustained indefinitely in a specific space.
* As a population reaches... [continues]
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