Article Critique: the Relationship Between Employee Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction

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Introduction
Jeon and Choi (2012) conducted an empirical study to examine whether or not there is a relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction. Due to previous studies conducted in the relationship between employees and customers, the authors felt that the use of indirect surveys provided inconclusive results. The main focus of this study is to determine whether or not the relationship betrween employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction is bilateral or unilateral. The authors argued that behavior plays a crucial role in shaping of individuals’ perceptions and that individuals are, to some extent, shaped by others’ behavior. Therefore, based on the assumption that employee satisfaction is influenced by customers, they created two separate models to measure the results simultaneously. Moreover, the authors argued that satisfied employees are more likely to be friendlier, more enthusiastic, and attentive towards customers (Beatty, Mayer, Coleman, Reynolds, and Lee, 1996; in Jeon and Choi, 2012). Emplyees are also influenced by other employees in reference to the concept of partner effect (Dolen, Lemmink, Ruyter, and Jong, 2002; in Jeon and Choi, 2012). The authors also mentioned that employees that are posibitive and feel good ultimately influence others around them to feel good as well. Therefore, they argued that employee job satisfaction is directly in relation to customers’ perceptions of service. (Schneider and Bowen, 1985; in Jeon and Choi, 2012) According to the authors, happy and satisfied employees believe that they have the ability to deliver the best possible service to customers. In addition employees who are happy and have high levels of satisfaction are more likely to share that positive energy with customers. To be affective in this study, the authors devided the study in two different sections focusing on whether or not ES influences CS and vise versa. Therefore, in study 1, the authors developed the relationship among employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction by proposing the following hypotheses: H1-1: Employee satisfaction will positively influence customer satisfaction. H1-2: Customer satisfaction will positively influence service provider’s job satisfation.

The authors utilized a number of secondary sources to support their study. They referenced a social exchange theory (Konovsky and Pugh, 1994; in Jeon and Choi, 2012) and the psychological contract theory (Robinson and Morrison, 1995; Jeon and Choi, 2012). These theories state that customers who are satisfied with the employees’ performance are more likely to engage in cooperative behavior. Employees are also more likely to be more attentive when customer appreciation is shown. There were several variables identified and used to conduct this study, such as dispositional and moderating variables. Dispositional variables were identified in the study as certain persionality factors and moderating variables were identified as self efficiency, where an individual confidence in their own abilities plays a big role in customer satisfaction. The authors pointed out that individuals who have a high confidence in themselves and their abilities are more likely to be more assertive and able to overcome challenges (McKee Simmers, and Licata, 1994; in Jeon and Choi, 2012). Authors also found that individuals with confidence and high self efficiency set higher expectations for themselves to achieve certain outcomes ( Pereay, Dellaert, and De Ruyter; 2004, in Jeon and Choi, 2012). Organizational variables were also identified in this study where supervisory behavior is an influence in the relationship between employee and customer satisfaction. The authors categoried supervisory behavior as person-organization fit, organizational justice, and supervisory support, (Netemeyer, Boles, Mckee, and McMurrian; 1997; in Jeon and Choi, 2012). The authors appointed that employees perception of fair treatment in the...
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