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The Library - Te Whare Pukapuka
APA Referencing (6th Edition)
APA quick guide
• APA quick guide (2 page printable PDF)
• The Library's APA referencing tutorial timetable is available online (APA Referencing and APA for Electronic Resources). • Face-to-face and online self-paced workshops are also available from Student Learning. • Tutorials can also be found on the American Psychological Association website.
What is APA style?
• The American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style is the most commonly used referencing style at the University of Waikato. • The latest edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) is now available in the Library. • Corrections to the first printing can be found on the APA website: Corrections to the first printing (PDF) and Corrected sample paper (PDF). • Changes to the 5th edition are highlighted with the word (NEW). How to use the APA referencing style 1. In text citation 2. References list 3. Key points How to reference / cite material 1. Books, 2. Journal articles (academic / scholarly) 3. Magazines (popular / trade) 4. Newspapers 5. Informally published work (webpages / online communities) 6. Audio visual 7. Others (Conference papers, reports, legal citations, personal communications, etc.) 8. Images / tables / figures
How to use the APA referencing style
• When quoting directly or indirectly from a source, the source must be acknowledged in the text by author name and year of publication. • If quoting directly, a location reference such as the page number or paragraph number is also required.
1. In text citation (Quotes/Paraphrasing)
a. Direct quotation
• Use quotation marks and include page numbers. Samovar and Porter (1997) point out that "language involves attaching meaning to symbols" (p.188). Alternatively: "Language involves attaching meaning to symbols" (Samovar & Porter, 1997, p.188).
APA Reference Style Guide (6th Edition)
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• A quotation of 40 or more words should be formatted as a freestanding, indented block of text without quotation marks. Note the location of the final full stop. Weston (1948) argues that: One of the most important phases of our special guests was to get information that would throw light on degeneration of the facial pattern that occurs so often in our modern civilization. This has its expression in the narrowing and lengthening of the face and the development of crooked teeth. (p. 174) • If you quote from online material and there are no page numbers (e.g. HTML based document), use the paragraph number (para.) instead. "Prevalence rates of antenatal major and minor depression have been estimated in community-based studies to range from 7% to 15% of all pregnancies" (Grote, Swartz, Geibel & Zuckoff, 2009, para. 2).
b. Indirect quotation/paraphrasing
Attaching meaning to symbols is considered to be the origin of written language (Samovar & Porter, 1997). N.B. Page numbers are optional when paraphrasing, although authors are encouraged to include them, especially when it assists the reader to locate the reference in long pieces of text (Publication Manual, p. 171).
c. Citations from a secondary source
Arnett (as cited in Claiborne & Drewery, 2010) suggests there is an emerging adult stage in the lifespan of humans, covering young people between the ages of 18 and 25 years. N.B. List Claiborne & Drewery in your reference list, not Arnett.
2. References list
• At the end of your assignment, you are required to provide the full bibliographic information for each source cited in text. • Start the list of References on a new page at the end of your assignment - do not use footnotes (Publication Manual, p. 37) • References must be listed in alphabetical order by author. • References should use the hanging indent format...