Apa Reference Style: Avoiding Communication Problems

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APA Reference Style Guide
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Updated 9 July 2009, OpenJournals Publishing
Periodical, xx, xxx-xxxx. Retrieved Month day, year, from web address Online document
Author, A.A. (2000). Title of work. Retrieved Month day, year, from web address Referencing other sources
A book with only one author
Rose, L. (1977). Crime and punishment. London: Batsford.
A book by two authors
Gordon, E.W., & Rourke, A. (1966). Compensatory education for the disadvantaged. New York: College Entrance Examination Board. In order to avoid possible communication problems all procedures should be explained to the patient (Gardner & Sheldon, 1967, p. 40)… Gardner and Sheldon (1967, p. 40)

When quoting a book with two authors in the text, use the word ‘and’ between the names; if the reference is in parentheses, use ‘&’ examine the problem… A book by three or more authors
Meyer, B.S., Anderson, D.P., Bohning, R.H., & Fratanna, D.G., Jr. (1973). Introduction to plant physiology. New York: Van Nostrand. In referring to a work by three, four or five authors all the relevant names have to be furnished in the first reference to the work, e.g.: …the traditionalist personality (Riesman, Denney & Glazer, 1968, p. 40) restrains him from doing… In later references to this work only the first author’s name is stated, and the abbreviation ‘et al.’ is used: …due to his “other-directness” modern Western man in a sense is at home everywhere and yet nowhere (Riesman et al., 1968, p. 40)… In referring to a work by six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (italicized and with a full stop after “al”), and the year for the first and subsequent citations. In the reference list, provide the initials and surnames of the first six authors, and shorten any remaining authors to et al. Reference to more than one publication of the same author in the same year Johnson (1994a, p. 48) discussed the subject…

In his later works (Johnson, 1994b, p. 56) he argued…
Johnson, P.D. (1994a). Pedagogy. London: Routledge.
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Updated 9 July 2009, OpenJournals Publishing
Johnson, P.D. (1994b). Advanced Pedagogy. London: Routledge. Different authors with the same surname
According to B. Smith (1989) and F. Smith (1997), …
When you refer to publications by different authors with the same surname, use their initials in the reference. A book with an institution, organisation or association as author You can also use the name of the body as part of the sentence. …it had long been evident that the intellectual potential of the Afrikaners on the Witwatersrand was under utilised (Rand Afrikaans University, 1976, p. 48)… …thus the Rand Afrikaans University (1963, p. 30) concluded that… Rand Afrikaans University (1970). The new university: A practical guideline. Johannesburg, Gauteng: Rand Afrikaans University. Where reference is made to the work by a body (institution, organisation, association, etc.) where no specific author is responsible for the work, the official name of the body is used as author. When the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher. A book with (an) editor(s)

Driver, E., & Broisen, A. (Eds.). (1989). Child sexual abuse. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan Education Ltd. Strunk, W. (Ed.). (1976). Adult learning. New York: Macmillan. A chapter in a book (not edited)

Capra, F. (1983). The systems view of life. In The turning point: science, society and the rising culture (pp. 376-399). London: Fontana Press Part/chapter of an edited book
Hartley, J.T., Harker, J.O., & Walsh, D.A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L.W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980’s: Psychological issues, (pp. 239-252). Washington: American Psychological Association. Shirom, A. (1989). Burnout in work organizations. In C.L. Cooper & I.T. Robertson (Eds.), International review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. IV (pp. 25-49). New York: Wiley....
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