Anthropology

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Anthropology

1/9/13
Archaeology
* The study of human behavior through material remains
* Artifacts: items intentionally modified for use as a tool * Applied Archaeology

Archaeological Tools
* Survey
* Test Pits
* Excavation – digging & examining
* Trowels
* Careful excavation
* Lab analysis

Biological (Physical) Anthropology
* The study of human biological variation in time and space

5 Special Interests within Biological Anthropology
* Human evolution as revealed by the fossil record (paleoanthropology) * Human genetics
* Human growth and development
* Human biological plasticity (the body’s ability to change as it copes with stresses, such as heat, cold, and altitude). * The biology, evolution, behavior, and social life of monkeys, apes, and other nonhuman primates.

Physical Anthropology
* Primatology:
* The study of modern non-human primate biology and behavior * Paleoprimatology
* The study of primate evolution
* Paleoanthropology
* The recovery and interpretation of early hominid remains * Osteology
* The study of the skeleton
* Human Biology
* The study of human growth and development, adaption to environment extremes, and human genetics * Paleopathology
* The study of health, disease and trauma in archaeological (skeletal) populations. * Bioarchaeology
* The study of human culture and history
* Forensic Anthropology
* The use of anthropological practices to identify the remains of recently deceased individuals and if possible reconstruct their cause of death.

Linguistic Anthropology
* Focus: Development and conceptualization of human language

Anthropology as Science
* What is Science?
* “Understanding phenomena through observation, generalization and verification.” * Science: Field of study that seeks reliable explanations, with reference to the material and physical world * Anthropologists need to use the scientific method to understand humans * Anthropologists gather data and use the scientific method to analyze the information.

The Scientific Method
* Observation
* The collection of quantitative data through experiment or observation in a controlled and unbiased manner * Generalization
* Constructing a hypothesis to explain observed data or phenomena * Hypothesis: A suggested but yet unverified explanation * Verification
* Testing and retesting a hypothesis
* Result: Falsifiable theory
* Theory: A set of ideas formulated to explain something * If a theory proves true, it becomes a scientific law.

REVIEW
Define Anthropology – The study of humans and its immediate ancestors What do anthropologists study? Human beings whenever and wherever they live What are the 4 fields of American Anthropology? Cultural, Archaeology, Linguistic and Physical Anthropology What is the Scientific method? Observation, Generalization, Verification, and Result

Chapter 2: Culture

How do you define culture?
Big “C” vs. little “c.” Big “C” – Holidays, etc. Little “c” – times you go to sleep Is cultural important? Why or why not? Yes, it gives you structure.

* “Culture…is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.” (Tylor 1871/1958:1) * Culture: patterns of learned behavior and ideas acquired by people as members of society. * Culture is not reinvented by each generation.

* We learn it from other members of the social groups we belong to. * We may modify it later
Culture is learned
* Enculturation: the process by which a child learns his or her culture * Children learn culture through different means
* Culture can be taught directly.
* Culture can be transmitted through observation.
* Culture is absorbed...
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