1. How did William Byrd’s life in Virginia reflect British influences? How did it reflect American characteristics? (Mention pertinent customs, interests, institutions, and objects.)
2. In view of William Byrd’s great wealth and influence in Virginia, why didn’t he simply stay in America?
3. In what respects was colonial Virginia an aristocratic society? In what respects was it democratic?
4. The author suggests that in England, William Byrd was something of a gadabout, whereas in America his life was more stable and constructive. In what ways do Byrd’s vocational, intellectual, and sexual activities support this argument?
5. This chapter describes several levels of authority in colonial Virginia. Describe the distribution of power in each of these relationships: husbands and wives, masters and slaves, local gentry and average colonists, Virginia and England.
6. William Byrd’s career reveals both the satisfaction and the frustration of being a British American. In what ways were the two identities compatible? In what ways did they come into conflict?
"Reform in Early America: John Woolman on Goodness and Greed"
1.What were the principal beliefs of the early Quakers, and why were they persecuted?
2.What were the customs and practices in the colonies that John Woolman particularly condemned? What did these behaviors have in common?
3.What did John Woolman mean by the words “scramble” and “cumber,” and why did he condemn both? What did he mean by the “inner plantation”?
4.According to William Penn, what is the essence of a good marriage—and what force is most likely to undermine true love?
5. Why did John Woolman write: “the seeds of great calamity and desolation are sown and growing fast on this continent”?
“Divided Loyalties: Jonathan Boucher and the Pre-Revolutionary...