Subject: Public Administration
Glimpse of the Public Administration-
Public administration is both an academic discipline and a field of practice; the latter is depicted in this picture of US federal public servants at a meeting. Public administration houses the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil servants for this work. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function." Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies." Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct”. Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, county, regional, state and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources (H.R.) administrators, city managers, census managers, state [mental health] directors, and cabinet secretaries. In the US, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted American civil service reform in the 1880s, moving public administration into academia. However, "until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber 's theory of bureaucracy" there was not "much interest in a theory of public administration." The field is multidisciplinary in character; one of the variousproposals for public administration's sub-fields sets out six pillars, including human resources, organizational theories, policy analysis and statistics, budgeting, and ethics.
Introduction to Administrative Reforms-
“Administrative reform means an induced, permanent improvement in administration.” -Wallis 1989
The ARC declarying its 6TH report at the hands of PM Manmohan Singh Critique on administrative reforms in India-
Administrative reform is intensely contextual: its contents must necessarily be related to the context in which it is discussed. An organic interest in public administration in India began to be evinced when the country first got involved in social-economic planning after Independence. Adoption of planning brought to the fore the state's active role in the amelioration of social affairs. In other words, administrative agencies in India began to be viewed as playing a growingly crucial role in planning and implementation of socio-economic affairs in the society. Administrative reform of this period - which was the first phase of administrative reform in India - was characterized, more than anything else, by consciously planned empowerment of the state as the scope of the state's conscious intervention in the management of societal affairs was progressively expanding. The career bureaucracy, in other words, began to be viewed as the sure solution to the society's myriad problems. Transplanting reforms
• Not a mechanical process; reforms are often highly context-bound. • Competition between agencies, cities, and states help spread of ideas/innovations. • NGO networks facilitate transmission of knowledge about good practices. • Gol can play an important role in facilitating cross-state/agency interactions; establishing an overarching monitoring system; and structuring incentives for reform. The nineties truly constitute another watershed in the history of administrative reform in India. In 1991, India announced its commitment to the new...