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Kelly, J., & Wanna, J. (2000). New public management and the politics of government budgeting. International Public Management Review, 1(1), 33-54. Retrieved from http://www3.imp.unisg.ch/org/idt/.../IPMR_1_1_BUDGETING.pdf The article examines the New Public Management (NPM) to address government budget conflicts using the guardian-spender framework of political scientist Aaron Wildavsky’s. Wildavsky explains traditional budgetary politics as missing structure and formal procedure of financial control which resulted in the the dichotomous relationship of guardians and spenders. The guardian and spender relationship is examined under NPM that suggest they are forced to perform together rather than separate which makes for a streamline budget process. (Kelly & Wanna, 2000, “successful budgeting is portrayed as a product of ongoing guardian and spender relations: both roles are legitimate and necessary in resolving budget decisions. Dividing functions and responsibilities between spenders and guardians enables specialization, increases predictability and, therefore, reduces complexity in budget decision-making (p.34)”. The article describes the current usefulness of guardian and spender as an effective evaluation tool The research used in this article encompasses different budgeting conflicts and strategies used by parliament and government. The relevance of the article to the research of dichotomy in politics and public administration is important as it examines the history of budgetary practices, conflicts, and its evolvement. The author presents an insightful and well drafted interpretation of forward thinking budgetary processes.
Hildebrand, D. (2008). public administration as pragmatic, democratic,and objective. Public Administration Review, 222-229. Retrieved from...