Motivation theories are primarily divided into two major types which are the content theories and the process theories.
This report aims to critically evaluate two process theories of motivation which is the Expectancy Theory by Victor Vroom and the Equity Theory by John Stacy Adams.
The methodologies used in this report include a study and analysis of textbooks, writings and journals from the internet.
As a conclusion, the question is not whether each of these approaches to motivation works, but where and when they work best.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
*Approximately 2,400 *words *excluding* diagrams and tables.
INTRODUCTION What is Motivation?
The word motivation is coined from the Latin word "movere", which means to move. Motivation is defined as an internal drive that activates behaviour and gives it direction. The term motivation theory is concerned with the processes that describe why and how human behaviour is activated and directed.
To maximize an individuals’ motivation to achieve the organisation’s objectives, managers must have a thorough understanding of theories of motivation. Such theories grew from a realisation that the principles of “scientific management” as advocated by Taylor (1911), involving the radical division of labour (Smith, 1904) by managers who relied too much upon an assumption that monetary rewards motivates.
This realisation, combined with an emerging consciousness regarding the conditions of the working classes in the industrialised West (Mayo, 1933), saw the birth of a new school of thought – the human relations movement – marked by the Hawthorne Study. From this “industrial psychology” school developed two streams of work motivation theory generically known as “Content” theories and “Process” theories (Rollinson 1998).
The Content Theory of Motivation is based on the idea that it is internal or intrinsic factors that energize and directs human... [continues]
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