2 Process Theories of Motivation

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Motivation theories are primarily divided into two major types which are the content theories and the process theories.
This report aims to critically evaluate two process theories of motivation which is the Expectancy Theory by Victor Vroom and the Equity Theory by John Stacy Adams. The methodologies used in this report include a study and analysis of textbooks, writings and journals from the internet. As a conclusion, the question is not whether each of these approaches to motivation works, but where and when they work best. TABLE OF CONTENTS

*Approximately 2,400 *words *excluding* diagrams and tables. INTRODUCTION What is Motivation?
The word motivation is coined from the Latin word "movere", which means to move. Motivation is defined as an internal drive that activates behaviour and gives it direction. The term motivation theory is concerned with the processes that describe why and how human behaviour is activated and directed. To maximize an individuals’ motivation to achieve the organisation’s objectives, managers must have a thorough understanding of theories of motivation. Such theories grew from a realisation that the principles of “scientific management” as advocated by Taylor (1911), involving the radical division of labour (Smith, 1904) by managers who relied too much upon an assumption that monetary rewards motivates. This realisation, combined with an emerging consciousness regarding the conditions of the working classes in the industrialised West (Mayo, 1933), saw the birth of a new school of thought – the human relations movement – marked by the Hawthorne Study. From this “industrial psychology” school developed two streams of work motivation theory generically known as “Content” theories and “Process” theories (Rollinson 1998). The Content Theory of Motivation is based on the idea that it is internal or intrinsic factors that energize and directs human behaviour. Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Alderfer's ERG theory, Herzeberg's motivator-hygiene theory (Herzeberg's dual factors theory), and McClelland's learned needs or three-needs theory are some of the major content theories. Of the different types of content theories, the most famous content theory is Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. Maslow introduced five levels of basic needs through his theory. Basic needs are categorized as physiological needs, safety and security needs, needs of love, needs for self esteem and needs for self-actualization (Maslow 1954). Just like Maslow's hierarchy of needs, ERG theory explains existence, relatedness, and growth needs. Through dual factors theory, Herzeberg (1993), describes certain factors in the workplace which result in job satisfaction. McClelland's learned needs or three-needs theory uses a projective technique called the Thematic Aptitude Test (TAT) so as to evaluate people based on three needs: power, achievement, and affiliation. People with high need of power take action in a way that influences the other's behaviour ( McClelland 1967). The most widely accepted explanations of motivation have been propounded by Victor Vroom. The theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a specific way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual to make this simple, expectancy theory says that an employee can be motivated to perform better when they belief that the better performance will lead to good performance appraisal and that this shall result into realization of their personal goal in form of some reward (Vroom 1964). Motivation = Valence x Expectancy.

Efforts and performance relationship
Performance and reward relationship
Rewards and personal goal relationship
Diagram 1 – Equity Theory
Vroom (1964) would maintain that we do things in our jobs in order to achieve...
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