This essay will begin first of all by defining “Motivation” as a business concept and then go on to present one process and content theory each before finally comparing them both.
The term “Motivation” was originally from the Latin verb movere, which mean “to move” (Beck, 2004) however this is an inadequate definition here as it is too simplified and doesn’t cover the various processes associated with how human behaviour is activated. (Steers, R.M, Porter, L.W., & Bigley, G.A., 1996) but it lets us know that motivation is concerned with our movements or actions and what determines them.
Motivation is a broad theoretical concept that we often use to explain why people (or animals) engage in particular actions at particular times. And therefore can be applied to different fields for this essay we will focus on work motivation. A better definition of motivation is a ‘concept used to describe the factors within an individual which arouse, maintain and channel behaviour toward a goal.’ (Lisa Bolton, 2005)
Work motivation theories can be divided into two categories termed process and content. The process theory explained in this essay will be Adam’s Equity theory while the content theory will be Alderfer’s ERG theory.
The process theories of motivation attempt to describe how behaviour is energized, directed and sustained, they focus on external influences or behaviours that people choose to meet their needs, in particular they place heavy emphasis on describing the functioning of the individual’s decision system as it relates to behaviour. (Steers et al, 2004)
One major process theory is the Equity theory developed in the 1960s by J.S Adams, it focuses primarily on the relationship between inputs and outcomes and worker’s perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes...