Chapter 6: The Duel for North America
TERMS AND NAMES:
Samuel de Champlain: an intrepid soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership fairly earned him the title, "Father of New France"; started establishment of Quebec in 1608 on St. Lawrence River; allied with Huron Indians and fought Iroquois for them 2.
William Pitt: British general; also known as the "Great Commoner" and "Organizer of Victory"; switched British focus in war from West Indies to Quebec-Montreal area; led 1758 expedition against Louisbourg (first significant British victory); appointed James Wolfe for Quebec expedition, 1759; led to fall of Montreal in 1760 (no more French left in Canada 3.
Antoine Cadillac: Frenchman who founded Detroit, “the City of Straits, “ on 1702 to thwart the English 4.
Robert de La Salle: sailed down Mississippi River in 1682 to the Gulf to check Spanish penetration; named great interior basin "Louisiana" in honor King Louis XIV; murdered when he returned to Gulf in 1687; allowed French to plant posts in Mississippi and Louisiana (New Orleans, 1718) to block Spain on Gulf of Mexico; allowed French to use Illinois for grain (to ship to France) 5.
James Wolfe: 32 year-old officer since age 14; appointed by William Pitt to lead 1759 British expedition into Quebec where he defeated the French under Marquis de Montcalm 6.
Edward Braddock: 60 year-old officer experienced in European warfare was sent to Virginia with a large detachment of British regulars; with two thousand men in 1755 set off to capture Fort Duquesne; his force consisted of "buckskins", ill-disciplined colonial militiamen who fought guerilla warfare; moved slowly, attacked by French-Indian force; it collapsed; this encouraged Indians who then moved from Pennsylvania to North Carolina 7.
Pontiac: Ottawa chief who led several tribes (aided by a handful of French traders) in 1763 in a violent campaign to drive the British out of the Ohio Country; besieged Detroit in 1763 and eventually overran all but...
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