1. conquistadors– Spanish soldiers and adventurers in search of gold, glory and land 2. Christopher Columbus – Italian sailor who believed he could reach Asia by sailing
west across the Atlantic Ocean
3. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella– eventually gave Columbus three ships-the
Nina, Pinta and the Santa Maria
4. Hernan Cortes –conqueror of the Aztec
5. Moctezuma II – ruler of the Aztec
6. Alonso Alvarez de Pineda – In 1519, he was the first to map the northern Gulf of Mexico, which included Texas, and established first mainland Spanish settlement even though it was not in Texas 7. Panfilo de Narvaez – led another expedition to the Gulf of Mexico in 1527. 8. Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca – Spanish adventurer whose expedition ended in
shipwreck on the Texas coast and became a slave of the American Indians 9. Estevanico –African guide killed by the Zuni in 1539
10. viceroy – royal governor of New Spain
11. Fray Marcos de Niza – a Catholic friar sent by the viceroy in 1539 to find the
“Seven Cities of Gold”
12. Francisco Vasquez de Coronado – thirty year old conquistadore who led the
Cibola expedition in 1540
13. Hernando de Soto– Spanish explorer who led an expedition that explored the
southeastern area of present-day U.S.
14. Luis de Moscoso Alvarado – took command of De Soto’s expedition after De Soto died
15. epidemics– widespread outbreaks of disease
16. mustangs – wild offspring of Spanish horses
17. Juan de Onate– founder of New Mexico
18. Columbian Exchange– transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the
Americas and the continents
19. Catholic church helped the Spanish in their efforts to find gold. 20. Colonization of Matagorda Bay was unsuccessful due to Indian attacks and disease. 21. Era of European Exploration was 1500-1600 A.D.
22. Robert La Salle shipwrecked on Matagorda Island while looking for the mouth of the Mississippi River....