The role of Gender equality for poverty reduction and growth and the impact of gender equality on the achievement of each of the remaining Millennium Development Goals.

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The role of Gender equality for poverty reduction and growth and the impact of gender equality on the achievement of each of the remaining Millennium Development Goals.

This report defines gender equality in terms of equality of opportunity (including equality of rewards for work and equality in access to human capital and other productive resources that enable economic activity), equality of voice; the ability to take actions that impact individuals and households and finally, equality under the law in terms of the structures and legislations in place.

While disparities in basic rights ;in schooling, credit, and jobs; or in the ability to participate in public life take their most direct toll on women and girls, the full costsof genderinequality ultimately harm everyone.Evidence brought together in research done and quoted in this report shows this unambiguously.A central messageis clear: ignoring gender disparities comes at great cost-to people'swell-beingand to countries'abilitiesto growsustainablyt,o govern effectivelya,ndthustoreducepoverty. .Genderdiscriminationhasraisedfemalemortalityratesinsome regions,deprivingthe worldof60-100 millionwomen (Sen1989

What typesof policiesand strategiespromote gen- der equality and foster more effectivedevelopment? This report exam- inesextensiveevidenceon the effectsof institutional reforms,economic policies,and activepolicymeasuresto promote greaterequalitybetween women and men In no region of the developing world are womenequal to men in legal, sociala,ndeconomicrights, Gender gapsare widespreadin accessto and control of resources,in eco- nomic opportunities,in power,and politicalvoice.

There has been extensive studies done on the relationship between gender quality and economic growth, which shows an unambiguous positive relationship between economic growth and gender equality, there is comparatively a smaller amount of research done to identify if the reverse relationship is true. Theoretically and intuitively it is expected that economic development opens many avenues for increasing gender equality in the long run. This is an effect anticipated due to the reduced ‘grip of poverty’ [ ] Higher incomes mean fewer resource constraints within the household that force parents to choose between investing in sons or in daughters. A considerable body of evidence around the world supports this assertion. However whilst there is empirical evidence to support the fact that developing economies over the years have shown improved gender equality, the issue remains that gender equality still prevails and after a certain point of development the improvements from development are likely to not translate into gains in equality. This is a significant issue that needs to be addressed by policy makers as this shows that policies that do not take into account [gender impacts] [into consideration are likely to widen the gap and woud be less effective than if economic poliies integrated equality in growth.] [sic]

This report also asks the question whether the MDG 3 is effective as an indicator to measure inequality in all its forms or if this is a [simplification of a complicated issue that reaches deep into a cultural structural and accepted norms within a society and therefore is not as simple as can be measured through health, education and political voice measures.]

examines the main causes of gender inequality, whilst the third section assesses the MDGs in the context of gender equality and looks at whether the main causes of gender inequality discussed in Section 2 have been embedded in the MDGs. Focusing only on the symptoms and manifestations of gender inequality rather than their structural causes has often led to narrow measures. Without attention to the underlying economic, social, cultural and societal causes of gender inequality, Greater gender equality cannot be achieved without defining and measuring the multi- dimensions of gender inequality. Although there have...
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