Sports Medicine Study Notes

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How are sports injuries classified and managed?

* Ways to classify sports injuries:
* Direct and indirect
* Soft and hard tissue
* Overuse

Students learn to: Identify specific examples of injuries that reflect each of these classifications

Classification| Signs and symptoms| Possible cause| Specific examples| Direct| * Pain * Tenderness * Swelling * Decreased function * Deformity| External force or blow to the body| * A hockey player receiving a bruise from being struck on the leg by a stick during a game.| Indirect| * Pain * Tenderness * Swelling * Decreased function * Deformity| Internal forces within the body| * A beach volleyball player overstretching to reach a ball straining a hamstring.| Soft tissue| * Pain * Tenderness * Swelling * Decreased function * Insatiability | Injury to body tissue, other than bones and teeth (tendons, ligaments, muscles); these can be caused by internal or external forces| * a sprained ankle| Hard tissue| * Pain * Tenderness * Swelling * Decreased function * Deformity * Discoloration * Bleeding| Injury to the bones (teeth) or cartilage caused by internal or external forces| * Dislocation of a joint (impact to the shoulder socket in a football tackle) * Fracture or break of the bone (landing heavily on the hands after a fall, breaking bones in the wrist) * Stress fractures (repeated pounding on hard surfaces| Overuse| * Persistent pain * Tenderness * Swelling * Decreased function| Excessive or repetitive use, trauma or stress on the bones, joints, tendons and muscles. Overuse problems can be caused by poorly designed training schedules| * Tendonitis (repeated low intensity activity causing tiny tears in the tendons) in the shoulder of a swimming form repeating of technique * Doing too much too soon (insufficient rest and recovery time) * Stress fractures (small cracks in the bone usually cause by repeated stress; this often occurs in the lower legs)|

* Soft tissue injuries
* Tears, sprains, contusions
* Skin abrasions, lacerations, blisters
* Inflammatory response

Students learn to manage soft tissue injuries:
* RICER
* Immediate treatment of skin injuries

* Muscles: consist of cells with a specific function, which is to contract to produce movement. They are attached to bones by tendons. Muscles have an extensive blood supply and therefore may bleed heavily when injured. (Common injuries – strains and contusions/bruises) * Tendons: tough bands of slightly elastic connective tissue that connects muscle to the bone. Relay the force the muscle produces to the bones to cause movement, (Common injuries – tendonitis) * Ligaments: Strong bands of inelastic fibrous tissue that connect bone to bone. Inelastic properties enhance stability of the joint) – have a poor supply of blood and therefore heal much slower

Soft tissue injury| Description| Cause/Example| Management| Tear| Injury to a muscle, ligament or tendon where the tissue fibres are torn| * Something sharp * Tight muscle| RICER| Sprain| Stretching or tearing a ligament1st degree: little damage2nd degree: moderate damage3rd degree: extensive damage| * Incorrect landing * Uneven surface| RICER| Strain| Muscle is stretched or torn occurring only in muscles and tendons1st degree: little damage2nd degree: moderate damage3rd degree: extensive damage| * Incorrect landing * Uneven surface| RICER| Contusion| Internal bleeding as a result of blood tissue and cells being damaged, A hematoma forms as a result. Varying intensity (Superficial – close to the skin, some penetrating deeply causing the bone to bruise)| * Collusion with another player| RICER| Skin abrasion| Surface layers of the skin have been broken| * Falling over| * Apply pressure to the area and elevate to prevent further bleeding * Gentle cleansing and...
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