Describe That Possible Signs, Symptoms, Indicators and Behaviours That May Cause Concern in the Context of Safeguarding.

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DEFINITION OF CHILD ABUSE
An abused child is any child, up to the age of 18, who has suffered from, or is believed likely to be at risk of, physical injury, neglect, emotional abuse, sexual abuse or verbal abuse. (Source: www.yesican.org) It is recognised that that it is abuse when someone inflicts harm or fails to prevent it. Children may be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting, by those known to them or by a stranger, for example, via the internet. Child abuse can have major long-term effects on all aspects of a child's health, development and well being. The main forms of ill-treatments are:

1)Physical Abuse
Physical abuse is deliberately causing physical harm to a child. This might involve punching; kicking, biting, burning, scalding, shaking, throwing or beating with objects such as belts, whips, or sticks. It also includes poisoning, giving a child alcohol or illegal drugs, drowning or suffocation. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of illness in a child. •1.1) Signs of Physical Abuse

There are certain signs that need to be acknowledged when suspicion arises that physical abuse is occurring: •Any injuries not consistent with the explanation given to school staff. •Injuries which occur to the body in places which are not normally exposed to falls or rough games •Injuries which have not received medical attention

Reluctance to change for, or participate in PE or swimming •Bruises, bites, burns and fractures, for example, which do not have an accidental explanation •The child gives inconsistent accounts for the cause of injuries 1.2) Possible effects of physical abuse

Physical abuse can lead directly to neurological damage, physical injuries, disability and in extreme cases death. Physical abuse has been linked to aggressive behaviour in children, emotional and behavioural problems and learning difficulties. (Source: /www.secasa.co). 2) Emotional Abuse

Emotional abuse is where repeated verbal threats, criticism, shouting, lack of love and affection causes a severe adverse effect on a child's emotional development. It consists of communicating to children that they are worthless, unloved, and inadequate or valued. Emotional abuse may include not giving a child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or 'making fun' of what they say. It may feature inappropriate expectations being imposed on a child, over protection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child from taking part in normal social interaction. It may also involve seeing or hearing a person being ill-treated and you do not do anything to stop the abuse. With the development of the internet the so called cyber-bullying is another matter that has become prevalent over the past few years; which in turn causes children to frequently feel scared or in danger.

2.2Signs of possible emotional abuse
Depression, aggression, extreme anxiety, changes or regression in mood or behaviour, particularly where a child withdraws or becomes clingy •Obsessions or phobias
Sudden underachievement or lack of concentration
Seeking adult attention and not mixing well with other children •Sleep or speech disorders
Negative statements about self
Highly aggressive or cruel to others
Extreme shyness or passivity
Running away, stealing and lying

2.3Possible effects of emotional abuse
This type of abuse can lead to adverse long-term effects on the child’s development. Emotional abuse has a significant impact on a developing child's mental health, behaviour and self-esteem. This type of abuse is as important as the other three types, and can be detected as the signs are more visible and can be easily detected. Domestic violence, adult mental health problems and parental substance misuse may be features in families where children are exposed to such abuse. (Source: www.nspcc.org.uk)

3) Sexual Abuse...
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