Public Speaking

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* public speaking is American’s number one fear
what is public speaking
features communication between a speaker and an audience
speaker does most of talking
audience centered
emphasizes the spoken word
usually a prepared presentation
Why study public speaking
Use in
Classroom
Career
Communication skills outrank all other qualities
Community
Least expect it
Public Speaking: A great tradition
The ancient Greeks were the first people to think formally about rhetoric –a systematic analysis of the art and practice of public speaking according to Aristotle Quintilian, Aristotle, Cicero, Socrates, Plato

The tradition of public speaking flourished in colonial America during the great awakening The American revolution presented numerous opportunities to demonstrate the power of oratory Decry new taxes

In the 19th century public speaking became a hallmark of American society Through public addresses
Freely debate political issues, expand their knowledge, and entertain one another 20th century
Woodrow- traveled the us advocating the league of nations
Martin Luther King Jr
Public speaking: a Dynamic Discipline
From linear to transactional
Communication started off as a linear process
1 way flow of ideas from speaker to audience
source – a person with an idea to express
message –the ideas that he/she conveys to the audience
encodes – the source chooses symbols to express ideas
verbal symbols – are the words that the sources uses to convey an idea nonverbal symbols – the means of making a point without the use of words such as hand gestures, movement, and facial expressions channel –the source communicates the encoded message through this medium of delivery receivers- try to make sense of the messages by decoding

decode – receivers process the source’s verbal and nonverbal symbols and form their own perception of the message meaning noise/interference – a phenomenon that disrupts communication between source and receiver Now we consider communication to be transactional

Transaction – a commutative exchange in which all participants continuously send and receive messages Feedback –using verbal or non verbal responses to send and receive messages Shared meaning – a common understanding with little confusion and few misinterpretations Awareness of audiences’ cultural diversity

Culture – the values, traditions, and rules for living passed from generation to generation, is learned and influences all aspects of a persons life Worldview – the les through which he/she sees and interprets reality Emphasis on critical thinking

Critical thinking – the analysis and evaluation of ideas based on reliability, truth, and accuracy Consider diverse perspectives
Research
Evaluate each possibility
Keep an open mind
A focus on free ethical communication
Freedom of expression – the right to share one’s ideas and opinions free from censorship- vital in a democratic society Ethics – a set of beliefs shared by a group about what behaviors are correct and incorrect Tell the truth, help the audience make a well informed decision on your topic, avoid manipulative reasoning, incorporate research materials

Why prepare
Leaving too little time for planning and practicing
Focusing on length rather than quality
Failing to follow the assignment
The Classical Approach to speech preparation
Speech preparation process based on principals of rhetoric that Ancient Greeks conceptualized Public speakers have been learning these ideas for over 2,400 years Cicero-a roman lawyer, politician, and famous orator made a treatise (De Inventione) which included 5 key matters for preparing a speech (contemporary scholars referred to them as classical cannons of rhetoric ) Invention

The generation of ideas for use in a speech including the speaker’s own thoughts on the topic and ideas from other sources talented speakers select the best ideas for a particular speech based on their analysis of their audience, their...
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