Psychology Study Guide

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2. Give an example of social construction. Why is it a construction not a fact?

- Issues regarding racial differences and this is a construction because it is socially constructed not biological.

4. What are some cohort differences between you and you parents?

- Some cohort differences between my parents and I are our differences in terms of fashion, knowledge of modern technology , and the colloquial words we use when talking.

2. How would your life be different if your parents were much higher or lower in SES than they are now?

- My life would be different if my parents SES income increased or decreased by changes having to become in my lifestyle whether it be assuming more responsibility, having more money to enjoy leisure activities, budgeting my expenses, or having my college expenses paid for.

2. How might a psychoanalytic theorist interpret a childhood experience such as the arrival of a new sibling?

- A psychoanalytic theorist might possibly interpret the occurrence as an decision that resulted from an underlying desire that has the potential to affect development in later years.

4. According to behaviorism why might some teenagers begin smoking cigarettes?

-According to behaviorism the teenagers might have learned similar behaviors in childhood that were not unlearned or reversed.

8. How might the sociocultural theory explain how students behave in class?

- Their behavior in class is shaped by their culture and influenced by social forces

11. Why are most developmentalist said to be eclectic?

- Most developmentalist are said to eclectic because the develop mentalist draw upon many theories.

2. Behaviorism has been used to change personal habits. Think of a habit you’d like to change ( e.g stop smoking, exercise more, watch less tv). Count the frequency of that behavior for a week.

-The behavior has occurred three times this week ( exercising).

2. How might stress hormones affect later development?

- If the brain produces an over abundance of stress hormones early in life then the brain becomes incapable of normal stress responses.

6. What characteristic of human brain seem designed for hearing and understanding speech?

-The characteristic of babies from 6-24 months being able to hear and recognize their local language long before a word is uttered.

7. Why would parents encourage ( before 12 months) or late ( after 12 months) walking?

- To strengthen the babies gross motor skills by allowing the baby to practice these necessary movements early on.

4. Why are some researchers concerned about too much emphasis being placed on early brain development?

- Because infants require adaptation because they are active listeners that seek to understand their complex observations and experiences.

5. How do researchers figure out whether an infant has a concept of something even if the infant cannot talk about it yet?

-By the infant being responsive to objects placed in front of him/her.

7. Why would a child remember very little about experiences in infancy?

-Because a certain amount of experience and brain maturation are required in order to process and remember experiences.

8. What indicates that toddlers use some grammar?

- By the toddler beginning to use two-word combinations which typically begins at about 21 months.

11. According to the sociocultural theory of language learning , what might explain why an 18 month is not talking yet?

- The 18 month old’s social impulses were not stimulated that resulted in the inability to communicate through speech

12. What does the research on language learning suggest to care givers?

-To respond appropriately to the infants early attempts to communicate

3.Many educators recommend that parents read to babies even before the babies begin talking. What theory of language development does this reflect?

-Behaviorism

2. How do emotions in the second year of life...
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