Psychology Study Guide Chapter 1: Different types of psychologists (clinical, forensic, social, health, industrial etc) • Clinical: aim to reduce psychological distress. Anxiety, depression, relationship problems, addictions and relationships. • Forensic: applying theory to criminal investigations, understanding psychological problems associated with criminal behavior, and the treatment of criminals. • Social: The study of relations between people and groups. Thoughts, feelings and behaviors altered by others. typically explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and immediate social situations • Health: relatively new. Principles are used to help changes about people’s attitudes about health and illness. Quitting smoking, safe sex. Prevent illness. • Industrial: evaluating employee behavior for the good of the company. It is often referred to as organizational psychology because of its emphasis on analyzing individuals who work for various organizations. Case history • A compilation of the life history of an individual based on interviews and other sources of information. Interviews • An in-depth question-and-answer session in which an individual’s life or problems are probed. Questionnaire • A highly structured paper and pencil interview. IQ testing results • 115 to 129 – Above average; bright • 130 to 144 – Moderately gifted • 145 to 159 – Highly gifted • 160 to 179 – Exceptionally gifted • 180 and up – Profoundly gifted Normal Bell Curve Correlation Studies • Correlational studies are used to look for relationships between variables. There are three possible results of a correlational study: a positive correlation, a negative correlation, and no correlation. The correlation coefficient is a measure of correlation strength and can range from –1.00 to +1.00. Perspectives in Psychology and pioneers (Freud) • Psychoanalytic: Sigmund Freud • Behaviorism: Pavlov, William McDougall, Thorndike, Watson, Carl Hull, B.F. Skinner, Tolman • Gestalt: Founded by Max Wertheimer • Humanistic: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers • Cognitive: Alfred Binet, Chomsky Chapter 2: The parts of a neuron • Dendrite: the primary receiving part of the neuron • Cell body: the part of the neuron that converts oxygen, sugars, and other nutrients into energy. • Nucleus: the core of the cell body of a neuron, containing the genes. • Receptor sites: Spots on the cell body, like the dendrites, that can be stimulated by other neurons. • Axon: the fibrous body of a neuron that send messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands. • Myelin sheath: A whitish coating of fatty protective tissue that “insulates” the axons. • Nodes: Constrictions of the Myelin sheath of an axon that act as booster stations for neural impulses.
• Synapse: Connecting point. Microscopic distance between two neurons. Parts of the Limbic system • Hypothalamus: Controls metabolism, sleep, hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, and emotions. • Amygdala • Thalamus: Relays sensory information. Visual and auditory systems, conveys information about balance and pain. • Hippocampus: Learning and memory formation. Homeostasis • A state of equilibrium in the physiological system in the human body. Frontal Lobe • higher level thought and reasoning. Primary motor cortex (making plans, forming judgements, and performing movements) Amygdala • Part of the limbic system that plays a role in intense positive and negative emotions. 2 hemispheres • Right: artsy, emotional, creative. • Left: language processing, organized, scientific. Corpus Callosum • Connects the left and right hemispheres and allows them to interact. Chapter 3: Absolute threshold • The minimum amount of stimulus energy to which a receptor can respond. The energy level at which a participant can detect a stimulus 50% of the time. JND (Just noticeable difference) • The smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that can be detected. (the difference threshold) Weber’s Law • The difference threshold (JND) is a...
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