Psychology Final

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Chapter 11 Social Psychology: studies how your thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of other people and by the social and physical environment. Social Cognition: studies how we form impressions of others, how we interpret the meaning of other people’s behavior, and how our behavior is affected by our attitudes. Person Perception: an active and subjective process that occurs in a interpersonal context; is influenced by subjective perceptions, social norms, personal goals, and self-perception. Person perception often involves using mental shortcuts−social categorization, implicit personality theories. Attribution: Explaining the behavior of others reflects common cognitive biases and explanatory patterns; fundamental attribution error, blaming the victim, hindsight bias, self-serving bias, and self-effacing bias. Attitudes: A learned tendency to evaluate an object, person, or issue in a particular way; can have cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components; although attitudes typically influence behavior, sometimes our behavior influences our attitude. When a person’s behavior conflicts with his or her attitude, cognitive dissonance may be the result. Prejudice: A negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group. Stereotypes: form of social categorization in which a cluster of characteristics is attributed to all members of social group or category; stereotypes are fostered by in-group and out-group thinking, and the out-group homogeneity effect; in-group bias occurs when we attribute positive qualities to members of our own group. Muzafer Sherif: Robbers cave experiment demonstrated that intergroup conflict can be decreased when groups engage in a cooperative effort. Social influence: social psychology research area that investigates how our behavior is affected by situational factors and other people. Conformity: when you adjust your opinions, judgments, or behavior so that it matches other people, or the norms of a social group or situation. Solomon Asch: conducted pioneering studies of the degree to which people will conform to the majority opinion even when they know it is objectively wrong. Obedience: performing a behavior in response to a direct command; command is typically given by an authority figure or a person of higher status such as a teacher or supervisor. Stanly Milgram: conducted landmark series of experiments investigating the conditions under which people will obey and disobey, the destructive orders of an authority figure. Philip Zimbardo: conducted Stanford prison experiment in which a mock prison was used to study how situational forces and social roles can impact behavior. Helping behavior: prosocial behavior is any behavior that helps others whether motives are self-less or self-serving. Altruism is helping behavior with no expectation of personal gain or benefit. Spurred by a tragedy in which multiple bystanders failed to help a young woman who is murdered, Bibb Latane and John Darley conducted the pioneering studies of when people will help a stranger. Willingness to help a stranger can be determined by the bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility. Chapter 12 Stress: negative emotional state in response to events appraised as taxing or exceeding s person’s resources. Health psychologists: study stress and other factors that influence health, illness, and treatment; are guided by the biopsychosocial model. Stressors: events or situations that produce stress. Life events and change: life events approach-stressors are any events that require adaption. Social Readjustment Rating Scale measures impact of life events. Daily hassles: minor everyday events that annoy and upset people. Social and cultural sources of stress: poverty, low social status, racism, and discrimination can cause chronic stress. Acculturative stress results from the pressure of adapting to a new culture. Physical effects of stress: psychoneuroimmunology studies interconnections...
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